30 terms

Ch. 5 American Government & Politics

Vocabulary and important terms or cases from the American Government & Politics Today 2010-2011 Brief Edition
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Civil Rights
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equ
Separate-but-Equal Doctrine
the doctrine established by Plessy v Ferguson (1896) that African Americans could constitutionally be kept in separate but equal facilities without violating the 14th amendment.
White Primary
A state primary election that restricts voting to whites only; outlawed by the Supreme Court in 1944.
Grandfather Clause
clause included in the state constitutions of several southern states after the Civil War placing high literacy and property requirements for voters whose ancestors did not vote before 1867. These clauses were designed to interfere with African-American citizens' right to vote. In 1915, the Supreme Court ruled grandfather clauses unconstitutional.
Poll Tax
Tax required to vote; prohibited for national elections by the Twenty-Fourth Amendment (1964) and ruled unconstitutional for all elections in Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections (1966).
Literacy Test
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
De Facto Segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of past social and economic conditions and residential racial patterns.
De Jure Segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
Busing
In the context of civil rights, the transportation of public school students from areas where they live to schools in other areas to eliminate school segregation based on residential patterns.
Civil Disobedience
opposing a law one considers unjust by peacefully disobeying it and accepting the resultant punishment
Suffrage
the right to vote, esp. in a political election.
Feminism
The movement that supports political, economic, and social equality for women.
Gender Discrimination
any practice, policy, or procedure that denies equality of treatment to an individual or to a group because of gender
Sexual Harassment
Unwanted physical contact, verbal conduct, or abuse of a sexual nature that interferes with a recipient's job performance, creates a hostile environment, or carries with it an implicit or explicit threat of adverse employment consequences.
Hispanic
someone who can claim a heritage from a Spanish-speaking country other than Spain
Latino
An alternative to the term Hispanic that is preferred by many.
Fertility Rate
statistic that measures the average number of children that women in a given group are expected to have over the course of a lifetime
Reverse Discrimination
discrimination against members of a majority group
Affirmative Action
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
Bakke v. California
(1978) First Reverse Discrimination Case. Ruled that a university's use of racial "quotas" in its admissions process was unconstitutional, but a school's use of "affirmative action" to accept more minority applicants was constitutional in some circumstances.
Lawrence v. Texas
1976. Court overruled Bowers v. Hardwick and ruled that laws discriminating against homosexuals, violated the 14th Amendment
Dread Scott Decision
1857, slaves were considered property not citizens, had no rights that a white man should respect, and that congress did not have the right to prohibit slavery in any territory
Plessy v. Ferguson
An 1896 Supreme Court decision that provided a constitutional justification for segregation by ruling that a Louisiana law requiring "equal but separate accommodations for the White and colored races" was constitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
The Civil Rights Acts of 1865-1875
acts designed to make illegal/criminalize efforts to disenfranchise African-Americans. Largely get ignored.
Voting Barriers
Measures to stop African Americans from voting: White Primaries, Grandfather Clause, Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests.
The Civil Rights Act (of 1964)
made it illegal to discriminate based on race, color, or gender in education, employment, public services, and voting
The Voting Rights Act (of 1965)
outlawed literacy and other voting tests and authorized federal supervision of elections in areas where black voting had been restricted
Defense of Marriage Act
Federal statute declaring marriage to be a "legal union of one man and one woman," denying gay couples many of the civil advantages of marriage, and also relieving states of the obligation to grant reciprocity, or "full faith and credit," to marriages performed in another state.
Equal Pay Act
Act that requires men and women to be paid equally when they are doing equal work in the same organization.