Science Vocab for Final

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Terms in this set (62)
RadiationElements that spontaneously emit radiationNuclear decayIs the processes of that occurs when an unstable atomic nucleus changes from a nucleus changes into another more stable nucleus by many radiationIonIs an item that is no longer neutral because it has gained or lost electronsChemical bondIs an outermost electron of an atom that participates in chemical bondingElectron dot diagrama model that represents valence electrons in an atom as dots around the elements chemical symbolcovalent bondIs A chemical bond form when two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electronsMoleculeIs a group of atoms held together by covalent bonding that acts as an independent unitPolar moleculea molecule that has a partial positive and a partial negative end because of an unequal sharing of electronsIonic bondThe attraction between positively and negatively charged ions in an ionic compoundMetallic bondIs a bond form with many metal atoms share their pooled valence electronsEarthquakeAre the vibrations in the ground that result from movement along breaks in the Earth's lithosphereFaultIs a break in Earth's lithosphere where one block of rock moves towards, away from, or past anotherSeismic waveVibrations that travel on and in the earthFocusThese waves originate where rocks first move along the fault, at a location inside EarthEpicenterIs the location on Earth's surface directly above the earthquake focusPrimary waveAlso called P-Waves, cause particles in the ground to move in a push-pull motion similar to a coiled springSecondary wavesAlso called S-Waves, are slower than P-waves. They cause particles to move up and down at right angles relative to the direction the wave travelsSurface wavesCauses particles in the ground to move up and down in a rolling motionSeismologistScientists that study earthquakesSeismometerMeasures and records ground motion and can be used to determine the distance seismic waves travelSeismogramA graphical illustration of seismic wavesVolcanoIs a vent and Earth's crust through which melted - or molten - rock flowsMagmaMolten rock below Earth's surfaceLavaMolten rock that erupts onto Earth's surfaceHot spotVolcanoes that are not associated with plate boundariesShield volcanoAre common along divergent plate boundaries and oceanic hot spotsComposite volcanoAre large, steep-sided volcanoes that result from explosive eruptions of antithetic and rhyolitic lava and ash along convergent plate boundariesCinder coneAre small, steep-sided volcanoes that erupt to gas-rich, basaltic lavasVolcanic ashTiny particles of polarized volcanic rock and glassViscositya liquids resistance to flowHabitatIs the place within an ecosystem that provides the biotic and abiotic factors an organism needs to survive and reproduce.PopulationIs all the organism of the same street she's that live in the same area at the same timeCommunityAll the population living in ecosystem at the same timeNicheIs the way a species interacts the abiotic antibiotic factors to abandon food, find shelter, and fulfill other needsPredationIs the act of one organism, the predator, feeding on another organism, it's preySymbiosisIs a closed, long-term relationship between two species that usually evolves in exchange of food or energyCarrying capacityIs the largest number of individuals of one species and ecosystem can support over timeProducerAre organism that use an outside energy source, such as the sun, and produce their own foodConsumerAre organisms that cannot make their own foodDetritivoresConsume the bodies of dead organisms and waste produced by living organismsFood webis a model of energy transfer that can show how the food chains in a community are interconnectedEnergy pyramidIs a model that shows the amount of energy available in each link of a food chainBiomeIs a geographic area on Earth that contains ecosystems with similar biotic and abiotic featuresEcological successionis the process that describes how the structure of a biological communityClimax communityAn ecological community in which populations of plants or animals remain stable and exist in balance with each other and their environmentPioneer speciesthe species that first colonize new habitats created by disturbancePopulationis all the members of a species living in a given areaDeforestationIs the removal of large areas of forests for human purposesDesertificationIs the development of desert like conditions due to human activities and/or climate changeUrban sprawlThe development of land for houses and other buildings near a cityReforestationinvolves planting trees to replace trees that have been cut down or burned downReclamationIs the process of restoring land disturbed by mining