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Chapter 6: Osseous tissue and Bone structure

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Are bones separate organs or just considered one organ?
bones are separate organs
bone are part of what system?
skeletal system
cartilages are part of what system?
skeletal system
ligaments are part of what system?
skeletal system
Are connective tissues part of the skeletal system?
yes
What are the 6 functions of the skeletal system?
support
storage of minerals (calcium)
storage of lipids (yellow marrow)
blood cell production (red marrow)
protection
leverage (force of motion)
the skeletal system stores what 2 things?
Storage of minerals (calcium)
storage of lipids (yellow marrow)
The skeletal system produces what?
blood cell production (red marrow)
What system helps with leverage (force of Motion)
the skeleton system
support and protection is function of what system?
the skeleton system
what are the three idenifications of bones?
shape
internal tissues
bone markings
What are the six bone shapes?
long bone
flat bones
sutural bones
irregular bones
short bones
sesamoid bones
What bone is long and thin?
long bone
what bones are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes?
long bones
The humerus is an example of what kind of bone?
long bone
What bone are thin with parallel surfaces?
flat bones
What bones are found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapula?
flat bones
the parietal bone is an example of what kind of bone?
flat bones
what bones are only found in the skull?
sutural bones
what bones are small and irregular?
sutural bones
what bones are foun between the flat bone of the skull?
sutural bones
saggital sutur is example of what kind of bone?
sutural bones
What bones have a complex shapes?
irregular bones
The spinal vertebrae and pelvic bones are an example of what kind of bones?
irregular bones
What kind of bones are small and thick?
short bones
The ankle (tarsals) and wrist bones (carpals) are example of what kind of bone?
short bones
What kind of bones are small and flat?
sesamoid bones
What kind of bones are developed inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet?
sesamoid bones
The patelia is example of kind of bones?
sesamoid bones
what are the 3 types of bone markings?
depressions or grooves
projections
tunnels
what do call a bone marking that is along the bone's surface?
depressions or grooves
Where tendons and ligaments attach would have what bone markings?
projections
what bone markings would be at articuations with other bones?
projections
the place where blood and nerves enter bone, would be called?
the tunnels
the long bones are compriased of what 3 physis?
diaphysis
epiphysis
metaphysis
The shaft of a long bone would be called?
diaphysis
The wide part at each end of a long bone would be called?
epiphysis
which physis of a long bone are associated with articulation with other bones?
epiphysis
What is the name of the place where diapyhsis and epiphysis meet?
metaphysis
what pyhsis has a heavy wall of compact bone, or dense bone?
diaphysis
The central space of the diaphysis is called?
the marrow cavity
what part of the diaphysis helps with storage and lessens weight of bone while still leaving the bone strong?
The marrow cavity
what part of the long bone is mostly spongy (cancellious) bone and covered with compact bone (cortex)?
epiphysis
what kind of bones resembles a sandwich of spongy bone, between 2 layers of compact bone with no marrow cavity?
flat bones
Dense, supportive connective tissue desribes what type of tissue?
Bone (osseous) tissue
Bone tissue can also be called?
osseous tissue
what tissue contains specialized cells and produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits (strength)?
Bone (osseous) tissue
what tissue is around collagen fibers for flexibility?
Bone (osseous) tissue
Bone (osseous) tissue dense matrix contains deposits of what?
calcium salts
Bone cells are located within what part of the dense matrix?
lacunae
bone cells within the luncunae are organized around "what" in dense matrix?
blood vessels
What forms pathway for nutreints and exchange nutrients and wastes?
canaliculi
Does the canaliculi have blood vessels going through it?
no
Covers outer surfaces of bones and consist of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers, is a characteristic of what part of bone (osseous) tissue?
periosteum
helps isolate bone and ties collagen fibers of bone directly into attached connective tissue (tendons/ligaments) is a charateristic of part of bone (osseous) tissue?
periosteum
What characteristic of bone (osseous) tissue gives a protective covering, helps with growth and repair?
periosteum
What makes up 2/3 of the bone matrix?
calcium phospate
what makes up 1/3 of the bone matrix?
protein fibers (collagen)
what are the 4 types of bone cell?
osteocytes
osteoblasts
osteoprogenitor cells
osteoclasts
a mature bone cells that main the bone matrix are called?
osteceocytes
which bone cell maintaines and recycles?
osteceocytes
what bone cells live in the lacunae and are between layers (lameliae) of the matrix?
osteceocytes
Which bone cell are connect by cytoplasmic etensions through canaliculi in lamellae?
osteceocytes
which bone cells do not divide?
osteceocytes
which bone cell maintain protein an mineral content of matrix, to help repair damaged bone?
osteceocytes
Which bone cell is associated with constantly tearing down and building up?
osteceocytes
Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds (osteogenesis) describes what type of bone cell?
osteoblasts
which bone cell is associated with making new bone?
osteoblasts
matrix produced by osteoblasts, but not yet calcified to form bone, is called?
osteoid
when osteoblasts surrounded by bone and become osteocytes, is reffered to as?
osteoid
Mesenchymal stem cells that divid to produce osteoblasts describes which bone cell?
osteoprogenitor cells
what bone cell is associated with growth and repair?
osteoprogenitor cells
Which bone cell is located in inner, cellular layer of periosteum and the endosteum?
osteoprogenitor cells
which bone cell assist in fractur repair?
osteoprogenitor cells
which bone cell has giant, mutinucleate cells?
osteoclasts
clasts means?
chew
which bone cell dissolves bone matrix and release stored minerals (osteolysis)
osteoclasts
which bone cells are derived from stem cells that produce macrophages?
osteoclasts
which bone cells secrete acids and protein-digesting enzymes?
osteoclasts
When bone building (by osteocytes) and bone recycling (by osteoclasts) are balanced, it creates what?
homostasis
When there is more breakdown than building, bones become what?
weak
what stimulates osteocytes to build bone?
exercise
what the basic unit of mature compact bone called?
osteon
When osteocytes are arranged in concentric lamellae it's called?
osteon
what is around a central canal containing blood vessels?
osteon
what is perpendicular to the central canal?
perforating canals
what carries blood vessels into bone and marrow?
perforating canals
lameliae wrapped around the long bone is called?
circumferential lamellae
what binds osteons together?
circumferential lamellae
what bone does not have osteons?
spongy bone
which bone matrix forms an open uetwork of trabeculae?
spongy bone
do trabeculae have blood vessels?
no
which marrow has lot of blood vessels?
red marrow
The space between trabeculae is filled with what type of bone marrow?
red marrow
what has blood vessels, forms re blood cells, and supplies nutrients to osteocytes?
red marrow
which marrow is located in some bones, and in spongy bone?
yellow marrow
why do we need yellow marrow?
because it stores fat
when the femur transfers weight from the hip joint to the knee joint, the femur becomes what in regards to weight?
a weight-bearing bone
what type of bones cause tension on the lateral side of the shaft and compression on the medial side?
weight-bearing bone
what two membrane cover compact bone?
periosteum and endosteum
periosteum membrane is located where on compact bone?
on the outside
endosteum membrane is located where on compact bone?
on the inside
What covers all bones except parts enclosed in joint capsules?
periosteum membrane
The periosteum is made up of what 2 layers?
fibrous layer and cellular layer
The fibrous layer is the outer or inner layer of the periosteum?
the outer layer
the cellular layer is the outer or inner layer of the periosteum?
the inner layer
what is the perforating fiber of the periosteum membrane?
collagen fibers
What connects with collaben fibers in bonee and with fibers of joint capsules, attached tendons, and ligaments?
periosteum
what functions to isolate bone from surrounding tissues, provide a route for circulatory and nervous supply, and participate in bone growth and repair?
periosteum
what has an incomplete cellular layer?
endosteum
what lines the marrow cavity?
endosteum
what covers trabeculae of spongy bone and lines central canals?
endosteum
does endosteum or periosteum provide gaps between cells?
endosteum
what contains osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and osteoclasts, endosteum or periosteum?
endosteum
is endosteum active in bone growth and repair?
yes
The humen bones grow until what age?
age 25
osteogenesis is what?
bone formation
the process of replacing other tissues with bone is called ossification or calcification?
ossification
The process of depositing calcium salts is calcification or ossification?
calcification
does calcification occurs during bone ossification and in other tissues?
yes
what are the 2 types of ossification?
intramembranous ossification
endochondral ossification
intramembranous ossification can also be called what?
dermal ossification
intramembranous ossification can also be called dermal ossification because it take place where?
the dermis
mandible and clavicle are considered what type of bones because of where they are produced?
dermal bones
There are how many main steps to intramembranous ossification?
3 main steps
Mesenchmal cells aggregate
-differentiate into osteoblasts
-begin ossification at the ossification center
-develop prjections called spicules
Is which step of intramembramous ossification?
step 1
When blood vessels grow into the area to supply the osteoblasts and spicules connect trapping blood vessels inside the bone, is which step of intramembranous ossification?
step 2
when spongy bone develops and is remodeled into osteons of compact bone, periosteum, or marrow cavities, is what step of intramembranous ossification?
step 3
ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartiage is intramembranous ossification or endochondral ossification?
endochondral ossification
do many or few bones originate as hyaline cartilage?
many bones
how many steps occur in growth and endochondral ossification of long bones?
6 steps
Condrocytes in the center of hyaline cartilage enlarge, form struts and calcify, causing chodrocytes to die and leave cartilage, is what step of endochondral ossification?
step 1
Blood bessels grow around the edges of the cartilage; cells in the perichondrium change to osteoblasts-producing a layer of superficial bone around the shaft which will continue to grow and become compact bone. is what step in endochondral ossification?
step 2
producing a layer of superficial bone around the shaft which will continue to grow and become compact bone. is example of what type of growth?
appositional growth
Blood vessels enter the cartilage; bringing fibroblasts that become osteoblasts; spongy bone develops at the primary ossification center. is what step of endochondral ossification?
step 3
which step of endochondral ossification does secondary possification centers form?
step 5
Remodeling creates a marrow cavity; bone replaces cartilage at the metaphyses. is which step of endochondral ossification?
step 4
capillaries and osteoblasts enter the epiphsis; creating 2 secondary ossification centers. is what step of endochondral ossification?
step 5
when the epiphysis fill with spongy bone; cartilage within the joint cavity is articulation cartilage; cartilage at the metaphysis is epiphyseal cartilage. is which step of endochondral ossification?
step 6
what type of growth happens in endochondral ossification?
appositional growth
when compact bone thickens and strengthens long bone with layers of circumferential lamellae is what type of growth in endochondral ossification?
appositional growth
when long bone stops growing, after puberty the epiphyseal cartilage does what?
disappears
when epiphyseal disappears, what forms?
epiphyseal lines
when osteoclasts enlarge marrow cavity; osteons from around blood vessels in compact bone means the bone is what?
a mature bone
what are the 3 major sets of blood vessels devloped in mature bones?
nutrient artery and vein
metaphyseal vessels
periosteal vessels
What is a single pair of large blood bessels that enter the diaphysis through the nutrient foramen in a mature bone?
nutrient artery and vein
which mature bone has more than one pair of nutrient artery and vein?
the femur
which blood vessels of the mature bones supply the epiphyseal cartilage and is where bone growth occurs?
metaphyseal vessels
Which blood vessels of mature bones provid blood to the superficial steons and secondary ssification centers?
periosteal vessels
A network of lympatic vessels and sensory nerves are contained in the periosteum or the endosteum?
periosteum
maintains itself and replaces mineral reserves is describes the adult skeleton or remodeling?
the adult skeleton
recycles and renews bone matrix; involves osteocytes (destroy), osteoblasts (build), and osteoclasts (eats) is describes what?
remodeling
The bone continually does what? hint: the 3 r's
remodels, recycles, replace
is the turnover rate consistent or varied?
varies
if deposition is greater than removal, the matrix and bone do what?
bone gets stronger and the matrix grows
if removal is faster than replacment, the matrix and bone do what?
matrix shrinks and bone gets weaker
what helps mineral recycling allowing bones to adappt to stress?
exercise
what effects heavily stressed bones become thicker and stronger?
exercise
how much bone mass can be lost in a few weeks of inactivity?
1/3 of bone mass
what causes bone degeneration?
inactivity
normal bone growth and maintenance requires what 2 factors?
nutritional and hormonal factors
what hormone is made in the kidneys?
calcitriol
what horomone helps absorb calcium and phosphorus from in the digestive tract?
calcitriol
calcitriol requires what vitamin for synthesis?
vitamin D3
what are the 2 most important mineral for bones?
calcium and phosphate
which vitamin is required for collage synthesis, and stimulates osteoblast differentiation?
vitamin C
what vitamin stimulates osteoblast activity?
vitamin A
which 2 vitamins help synthesize bone proteins?
vitamin K and vitamin B12
what are the 2 harmones that stimulate bone growth?
growth hormone and thyroxine hormons
what 2 hormones stimulate osteoblasts?
estrogens and androgens (steroids)
Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone regulate what 2 minerals level?
calcium and phospate levels
what is the most abundant mineral in the body?
calcium
bones are great at storing what major mineral?
calcium
calcium ions are vital to what 3 things? hint: first letters m,n,mc
membranes
neurons
muscle cells, especially heart cells
what vitamin is vital for the membranes?
calcium
what vitamin is vital for the neurons?
calcium
what vitamin is vital for muscle cells, especially heart cells?
calcium
calcium is regulated by which 2 harmones to maintain homeostasis?
calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
homeostasis is maintained by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone which control storage, absorption, and excretion. is example of what type of regulation?
calcium regulation
Where is calcium stored?
the bones
Where is calcium absorbed?
the digestive tract
where is calcium excreted?
kidneys
The parathyroid glands are produced where?
in the neck
when parathyroid hormone stimulate osteoclasts, increase intestinal absorption of calcium, and decrease calcium excretion at the kidneys. the parathyroid is increasing what?
increases calcium ion levels
what hormone is secreted by c cells (parafollicular cell) in thyroid?
calcitonin
when calcitonin inhibits osteoclast activity and increasing calcium excretion at kidneys, it is doing what to the calcium ion level?
decreases the calcium ion levels
calcium and phosphate ions in blood are lost where?
urine
ions must be replaced to maintain what?
homeostasis
if not obtained fro diet, ions are removed from where?
the skeleton
if ions are removed from the skeleton, what happens to the bones?
it causes weakening bones
what are the 2 major componites to keeping bones strong?
exercise and nutrition
Cracks or breaks in bones caused by physical stress is called?
fractures
How many steps are there in fracture repair?
4 steps
Bleeding produces a clot (fracture hematoma); establishes a fibrous network; then bone cells in the area die. is what step of fracture repair?
step 1
cells of the endosteum and periosteum divide and migrate into fracture zone; calluses begin to stabilize the break; external callus of cartilage and bone surrounds breaks; then internal callus develops in marrow cavity. is what step of fracture repair?
step 2
Osteoblasts replace central cartilage of external callus with spongy bone. is what step of fracrure repair?
step 3
osteoblasts and osteocytes remodel the fracture for up to a year creating compact bone and reducing bone calluses. is which step of fracture repair?
step 4
do bones become thicker and stronger with age?
no
osteopenia begins around what 10 year period?
age 30 to 40
do women or men lose 8% of bone mass per decade?
women
The epiphses, vertebrae, and jaws are most affected by what?
bone loss
fragile limbs, reduction in height, and tooth loss are the effects of what?
bone loss
severe bone loss, affects normal function, begins in some at age 45, and occurs with a higher percentage women than men, describes what dieses?
osteoporosis
estrogens and androgens help maintain what?
bone mass
bone loss in women accelerates after what?
menopause