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What are the 6 functions of the skeletal system?
storage of minerals (calcium)
storage of lipids (yellow marrow)
blood cell production (red marrow)
leverage (force of motion)
the skeletal system stores what 2 things?
Storage of minerals (calcium)
storage of lipids (yellow marrow)
What are the six bone shapes?
What kind of bones are developed inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet?
what part of the diaphysis helps with storage and lessens weight of bone while still leaving the bone strong?
The marrow cavity
what part of the long bone is mostly spongy (cancellious) bone and covered with compact bone (cortex)?
what kind of bones resembles a sandwich of spongy bone, between 2 layers of compact bone with no marrow cavity?
what tissue contains specialized cells and produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits (strength)?
Bone (osseous) tissue
Covers outer surfaces of bones and consist of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers, is a characteristic of what part of bone (osseous) tissue?
helps isolate bone and ties collagen fibers of bone directly into attached connective tissue (tendons/ligaments) is a charateristic of part of bone (osseous) tissue?
What characteristic of bone (osseous) tissue gives a protective covering, helps with growth and repair?
which bone cell maintain protein an mineral content of matrix, to help repair damaged bone?
Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds (osteogenesis) describes what type of bone cell?
Mesenchymal stem cells that divid to produce osteoblasts describes which bone cell?
Which bone cell is located in inner, cellular layer of periosteum and the endosteum?
When bone building (by osteocytes) and bone recycling (by osteoclasts) are balanced, it creates what?
when the femur transfers weight from the hip joint to the knee joint, the femur becomes what in regards to weight?
a weight-bearing bone
what type of bones cause tension on the lateral side of the shaft and compression on the medial side?
What connects with collaben fibers in bonee and with fibers of joint capsules, attached tendons, and ligaments?
what functions to isolate bone from surrounding tissues, provide a route for circulatory and nervous supply, and participate in bone growth and repair?
what contains osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and osteoclasts, endosteum or periosteum?
the process of replacing other tissues with bone is called ossification or calcification?
intramembranous ossification can also be called dermal ossification because it take place where?
mandible and clavicle are considered what type of bones because of where they are produced?
Mesenchmal cells aggregate
-differentiate into osteoblasts
-begin ossification at the ossification center
-develop prjections called spicules
Is which step of intramembramous ossification?
When blood vessels grow into the area to supply the osteoblasts and spicules connect trapping blood vessels inside the bone, is which step of intramembranous ossification?
when spongy bone develops and is remodeled into osteons of compact bone, periosteum, or marrow cavities, is what step of intramembranous ossification?
ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartiage is intramembranous ossification or endochondral ossification?
Condrocytes in the center of hyaline cartilage enlarge, form struts and calcify, causing chodrocytes to die and leave cartilage, is what step of endochondral ossification?
Blood bessels grow around the edges of the cartilage; cells in the perichondrium change to osteoblasts-producing a layer of superficial bone around the shaft which will continue to grow and become compact bone. is what step in endochondral ossification?
producing a layer of superficial bone around the shaft which will continue to grow and become compact bone. is example of what type of growth?
Blood vessels enter the cartilage; bringing fibroblasts that become osteoblasts; spongy bone develops at the primary ossification center. is what step of endochondral ossification?
Remodeling creates a marrow cavity; bone replaces cartilage at the metaphyses. is which step of endochondral ossification?
capillaries and osteoblasts enter the epiphsis; creating 2 secondary ossification centers. is what step of endochondral ossification?
when the epiphysis fill with spongy bone; cartilage within the joint cavity is articulation cartilage; cartilage at the metaphysis is epiphyseal cartilage. is which step of endochondral ossification?
when compact bone thickens and strengthens long bone with layers of circumferential lamellae is what type of growth in endochondral ossification?
when osteoclasts enlarge marrow cavity; osteons from around blood vessels in compact bone means the bone is what?
a mature bone
what are the 3 major sets of blood vessels devloped in mature bones?
nutrient artery and vein
What is a single pair of large blood bessels that enter the diaphysis through the nutrient foramen in a mature bone?
nutrient artery and vein
which blood vessels of the mature bones supply the epiphyseal cartilage and is where bone growth occurs?
Which blood vessels of mature bones provid blood to the superficial steons and secondary ssification centers?
A network of lympatic vessels and sensory nerves are contained in the periosteum or the endosteum?
maintains itself and replaces mineral reserves is describes the adult skeleton or remodeling?
the adult skeleton
recycles and renews bone matrix; involves osteocytes (destroy), osteoblasts (build), and osteoclasts (eats) is describes what?
if deposition is greater than removal, the matrix and bone do what?
bone gets stronger and the matrix grows
if removal is faster than replacment, the matrix and bone do what?
matrix shrinks and bone gets weaker
which vitamin is required for collage synthesis, and stimulates osteoblast differentiation?
calcium ions are vital to what 3 things? hint: first letters m,n,mc
muscle cells, especially heart cells
calcium is regulated by which 2 harmones to maintain homeostasis?
calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
homeostasis is maintained by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone which control storage, absorption, and excretion. is example of what type of regulation?
when parathyroid hormone stimulate osteoclasts, increase intestinal absorption of calcium, and decrease calcium excretion at the kidneys. the parathyroid is increasing what?
increases calcium ion levels
when calcitonin inhibits osteoclast activity and increasing calcium excretion at kidneys, it is doing what to the calcium ion level?
decreases the calcium ion levels
Bleeding produces a clot (fracture hematoma); establishes a fibrous network; then bone cells in the area die. is what step of fracture repair?
cells of the endosteum and periosteum divide and migrate into fracture zone; calluses begin to stabilize the break; external callus of cartilage and bone surrounds breaks; then internal callus develops in marrow cavity. is what step of fracture repair?
Osteoblasts replace central cartilage of external callus with spongy bone. is what step of fracrure repair?
osteoblasts and osteocytes remodel the fracture for up to a year creating compact bone and reducing bone calluses. is which step of fracture repair?
severe bone loss, affects normal function, begins in some at age 45, and occurs with a higher percentage women than men, describes what dieses?
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