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62 terms

Beethoven to the Beatles

UMD Class
STUDY
PLAY
Tone Quality
Choice of instrument or voice; the timbrel quality or the sound.
Range
Highest and Lowest pitches of a melody.
Register
General Pitch level of the melody ranging from very low to very high.
Length
Varying lengths of a melody from a very short, longer to continuous.
Contour
shape of a melody in terms of pitch repetition, stepwise movement and skips.
Prominence of Melody
Some melodies are heard above the accompaniment patterns while some melodies may just be part of the total fabric of the sound.
Motives
Characteristic melodic patterns that achieve structural importance through repetition.
Chord Outline
Pitches of melodies which outline chords
Embellishment
Some melodies are simple and direct while others are highly decorated.
Phrase Design
complete musical idea
Phrase Extensions
repeated phrase with or without embellishment, parallel period, contrasting period, and Independent phrases which are often placed in a Through-Composed form.
Harmony
Simultaneous combination of pitches wither consonant to give the listener a sense of repose or dissonant to give an impression of tension.
Triads
(major, minor, augmented, diminished), 7th 9th 11th 13th chords
Tonality
Hierarchy of chords around a central tone Brings you back to the cord.
Cadences
Patterns of two chords which appear at the ends of phrases some complete and some incomplete.
Modulation
Change of tonal center or key
Atonality
Shonberg, without tonality, all 12 notes of western music are equally treated without any focus on one tonal center over another.
Form
Structure of music which may be perceived on different levels ranging from the development of tiny motives to the scheme of large independent sections.
Sectional Form (Song Form)
Music constructed out of distinct sections
AB = Binary Form
ABA = Ternary Form
Variation Form
Structure consisting of a theme and a series of variations on it usually A A' A" A'" etc.
Sonata
Allegro Form developmental form usually a first movement in a multi-movement work
Free Forms
Free structural plan that do not follow the formal processes
Folk Music and Non-Western
Music traditionally transmitted through oral tradition
Gregorian Chant
monophonic singing developed in the early church flourishing
Early Secular Music
Non-sacred music initially generated by oral tradition, developed in 12th and 13th centuries
Gothic Period
Middle Ages - music characterized by intellectual type of polyphony. Working out each line independently-combined various languages
Renaissance "Rebirth"
Revival of interest in the philosophy and arts of ancient Greece and Rome. HUMANISM
The Baroque Period
derived from the Portugese word "baroco" which means balance and symmetry. Fondness for the large and grandiose, Sir Isaac Newton, Galileo, Major and Minor, solid tonal center, modulation techniques, Terraced Dynamics
Ornamentation
The addition of embellishment to a melody
Classicism
Age of Reason and Enlightenment. Reason not with was the new beacon. Sonata, Rondo, Theme, Variation, Scherzo
Strophic Songs
Most music, sectional forms... Song form. Melody with several verses of words
Chant
A single style without a regular meter
Recitative
A style of singing in opera which covers the story line in an economical and direct way.
Art Song
Musical setting of a text by a trained composer demonstrating the unity of words and music
Levels of Music Listening
sonic background, enhance the action in a motion picture, work songs, dance songs, music which enriches emotional and intellectual satisfaction
Essence of Music
1. Expressive impact 2. Knowledge of content and structure
Improvement of Listening Skills
attend concerts and write brief reviews for yourself, keep an open mind, develop musical memory, listen for structural detail, expressive impact and composer's intent
Rhythm
motion in music determined by duration of sounds
Beat
the basic rhythmic unit in a piece of music
Tempo
Speed of the pulse
Meter
Recurring pattern of beats in the space/time of one measure
Accent
Emphasis in music
Syncopation
Unexpected emphazsis in music
Polymeter & Polyrhythm
Simultanios combination of 2 or more meters and rhythms
Dynamics
The degree of volume
Nuance
Combination of subtle changes in volume, speed and articulation
Rubato
(robbed time) a slight deviation from the exact execution of the rhythm
Articulation/Phrase
how a single note or a group of notes is attacked and shaped
Timbre
Tone quality or tone color of a musical sound
Pitch
Highness or lowness of a sound
Interval
distance between pitches
Scale
Ladderlike succession f ascending and descending half step and whole step pitches in the context of an octave
Solfege
system of naming the notes of a scale by the syllables instead of letters
Mode
Synonomous to scale named with Greek terms
Theme
term used to designate the central idea of a piece
Imitation
repeat of a melody in another part
Inversion
change of melodic direction to recreate a mirror image
Retrograde reversal of a melody
reversal of a melody
Retrograde inversion
a melody reversed and turned up die down
Augmentation
melody repeated in longer note values
Diminution
melody repeated in shorter note values
Texture
Relationship amount the various note in a musical composition both together one after another: Monophonic, Heterophonic, Polyphonic, Homophonic