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47 terms

Psych 3-5

STUDY
PLAY
development psychology
the study of changes that occur as an individual matures
grasping reflex
an infant's clinging response to a touch on the palm of his or her hand
rooting reflex
an infant's response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around his or her mouth
maturation
the internally programmed growth of a child
telegraphic speech
the kind of verbal utterances in which words are left out, but the meaning is usually clear
schema
a specific plan for knowing the world
assimilation
the process of fitting objects and experiences into one's schemas
accomodation
the adjustment of one's schemas to include newly observed events and experiences
object permanence
a child's realization that an object exists even when he or she cannot see or touch it
representational thought
the intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind
conservation
the principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed
egocentric
a young child's inability to understand another person's perspective
imprinting
inherited tendencies or responses that are displayed by newborn animals when they encounter new stimuli in their environment
critical period
a specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned
authoritarian family
parents attempt to control, shape, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of children in accordance with a set code of conduct
democratic/authoritative family
adolescents participate in decisions affecting their lives
permissive/laissez-faire family
children have the final say; parents are less controlling and have a non punishing, accepting attitude toward children
socialization
the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live
identification
the process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same-sex parent
sublimation
the process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks
role taking
children's play that involves assuming adult roles, thus enabling the child to experience different points of view
initiation rites
ceremonies or rituals in which an individual is admitted to new status or accepted into a new position
puberty
sexual maturation; the end of childhood and the point when reproduction is first possible
menarche
the first menstrual period
spermarche
period during which males achieve first ejaculation
asynchrony
the condition during adolescence in which the growth or maturation of bodily parts is uneven
rationalization
a process whereby an individual seeks to explain an often unpleasant emotion or behavior in a way that will preserve his or her self-esteem
identity crisis
a period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are
social learning theory
Bandura's view of human development; emphasizes interaction
clique
a small, exclusive group of people within a larger group
conformity
acting in accordance with some specified authority
anorexia nervosa
a serious eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight that results in prolonged self-saturation and dramatic weight loss
bulimia nervosa
a serious eating disorder characterized by compulsive overeating usually followed by self-induced vomiting or laxative abuse
gender identity
the sex group (masculine or feminine) to which an individual biologically belongs
gender role
the set of behaviors that society considers appropriate for each sex
gender stereotype
an oversimplified or distorted generalization about the characteristics of men and women
androgynous
combining or confusing traditionally male and female characteristics
gender schema
a set of behaviors organized around how either a male or female should think and behave
menopause
the biological event in which a woman's productions of sex hormones is sharply reduced
generativity
the desire, in middle age, to use one's accumulated wisdom to guide future generation
stagnation
a discontinuation of development and a desired to recapture the post
decremental model of aging
idea that progressive physical and mental decline are inevitable with age
ageism
prejudice or discrimination against the elderly
senile dementia
decreases in mental abilities experienced by some people in old age
alzheimer's disease
a condition that destroys a persons's ability to think, remember, relate to others, and care for herself or himself
thanatology
the study of dying and death
hospice
a facility designed to care for the special needs of the dying