PSY 100 Exam #1

Why would it be accurate to say that neural communication is an 'electrochemical process'?
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Ritchard and Kenny go out to have dinner at their favorite restaurant to celebrate their 3-year anniversary. Ritchard orders the paella, his favorite dish of rice and seafood. With every bite he closes his eyes and sighs with happiness. What part of Ritchard's cerebral cortex is probably most active as he is enjoying the taste of his dinner?
Which of the following brain imaging techniques provides the highest level of temporal resolution?electroencephalography (EEG)Irene has been having migraines lately and she goes to visit her doctor. Her doctor sends her to have a brain imaging test that will measure changes in the naturally occurring oxygen in the blood in her brain. Which type of procedure is Irene going to have?Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)Which type of brain imaging technique involves shining an infrared light on a person's head to see how it changes as it penetrates the brain?Diffuse Optical Imaging (DOI)Sex-hormones start to decrease most rapidly for most people when they reach ______Blank years old.50Why does the analogy of a car (for hormonal transmission) and a train (for neural transmission) help explain their differences?Hormones can go many places, whereas neurons have to follow a specific path.What is the study of how the nervous system and the endocrine system are interrelated called?NeuroendocrinologyCortisol is most related to which of the following?Most related to stress response.Which is the hormone most associated with social bonding?OxytocinMaternal behaviors in mothers are related to increases in estrogens and ______ during pregnancy.ProgesteroneHormones can only influence cells that have specific ______hormone receptorsWhen hormones activate a target cell, proteins ______ other genes.activate or deactivateIf human behavior can be conceptualized as three systems- input, integrator, and output- then which do hormones influence?All three systemsIn a study of both chess players and soccer fans, the conclusion was that winner's testosterone______.increased and loser's decreasedIn a study of women's testosterone levels, their levels were the highest ______.prior to intercourseWhat is generally true of how boys and girls differ at different skills?Boys are better at visuospacial skills, girls better at verbal skillsWhat is true of how anorexia and schizophrenia impact men and women?anorexia more common in women, schizophrenia more common in menWhen rodents are exposed to steroids early in life the effect is mostly permanent; if exposed in adulthood ______.the effect is reversible.Compared to girls without congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), girls with CAH were found to be what?more likely to prefer masculine toysWhy are female mammals referred to as the "neutral" sex?Additional physiological steps are needed for male differentiation.When looking at cognitive differences between the sexes, which of the following would be the best conclusion?While there are differences, the differences are slight.In both animal and human studies, how can the link to testosterone and aggression be summarized?High testosterone is linked to aggressive behavior.______ appears to be the hormone that causes maternal behavior in the female rat.Progesterone___ appears to be the hormone that is most highly associated with maternal behavior in humans.CortisolThere are three fundamental questions that exist at the intersection of philosophy and psychology. Which of the following is one of them?the nature-nurture problemWhich question has caused more controversy than any other in the history of psychology?the nature-nurture debateWhich of the following examples would demonstrate the influence of nature on one's success?a football player is born with the genes to be very tall, very fast, and quite muscularDenzel is a psychologist who is interested in conducting research that examines the nature-nurture debate as it applies to people. He is trying to come up with a way to explore this issue using an experiment, but is having difficulty constructing a research plan. What would be the primary obstacle Denzel faces?one cannot manipulate human beings' genetics easilyMarilyn is a graduate student in psychology, and she has decided that she wants to study the influences of nature and nurture. Which of the following might be the most appropriate title for her thesis?"How one's genes interact with their surroundings to determine intelligence."The science of how one's genetic code and their environmental influences interact to affect their actions is called ______.Behavioral GeneticsWhich of the following provides the easiest opportunity to see the way in which genes and one's environment work together to influence behavior?child adoption studiesDr. Eplin is conducting a study with hundreds of children and the parents who raised them, but are not biologically related to the children. Dr. Eplin is curious whether genes or the household environment has a greater influence on children's behavior. What kind of study is Dr. Eplin conducting?an adoption studyWhen Paula and Paulette were first conceived, they were the result of a single fertilized egg splitting into two different zygotes. They share all of their genetic code, and can be thought of as natural clones. What kind of twins are they?monozygoticHow much of their genetic code do fraternal twins share?50%Martha and Mary are sisters who were born 2 ½ years apart. Eric and Merrick are fraternal twin brothers who were born 8 minutes apart. Which of the following would be the most accurate statement regarding their genetic similarities?The sisters are as genetically similar as the twin brothersThe scientific discipline of ______ examines similarities between individuals and analyzes them based on how biologically related they are.quantitative geneticsQuantitative genetics looks at similarities among individuals, analyzing how biologically related they are. These studies are often done on all of the following except which?unrelated strangersAs a general statement, the higher the ______coefficient, the stronger the influence of one's genes on a specific trait being examined.heritabilityIf you compare the heritability coefficient of a pair of distant cousins to that of a pair of identical twins, what would you expect to find?the twins' coefficient would be much higher than the cousins'Which of the following important discoveries was made by Watson and Crick in the 1950s? Question Markthe structure of DNAWhich of the following is the most accurate statement with regard to the influence of genetics on people's qualities?everything has some footing in geneticsWhich of the following has been the most important disappointment of nature-nurture studies?the failure to adequately organize traits from more- to less-geneticTo what does "G x E" refer?genetic differences can affect behaviors under some environmental circumstances but not othersWhich of the following is a process in which the DNA itself is modified by environmental events and those genetic changes are then transmitted to children?epigeneticsThe human capacity to perceive and understand other people's mental states is known as ______Blank.Theory of MindMargaret can remember small details about her brother's face, yet she is unable to recognize when he is being sarcastic. Margaret most likely has what developmental disorder?AutismAn object that can move itself and work toward a goal is known as a(n) ______.AgentTomas uses a lot of hand gestures when he speaks with Cathy. Soon, Cathy unknowingly begins to use a lot of hand gestures in their conversation, too. This phenomenon is known as ______.MimicryDonna can tell that Jamal is very excited. After speaking with him, Donna realizes that she herself feels excited. Her emotions have changed due to what phenomenon?automatic empathyEven though Marcus can see the moon from where he is sitting, he can tell that his dinner companion Leslie will not be able to see it due to the tree blocking her view. Marcus's ability is known as ______.visual perspective taking.These type of neurons fire in a monkey's brain when he engages in an action or witnesses the same action.mirror neuronsWe use ______Blank when we interpret others' actions through the lens of our own thoughts, emotions, and goals.Social ProjectionDylan has a goal and an idea of how to achieve it. He then performs the action necessary to carry out the goal. What type of behavior did Dylan display?IntentionalAt what age do most people start to develop a theory of mind?in the first year of lifeUsing one's own mental states as a model for others' mental states is known as what?simulationWhen 2 people mirror each other's gestures or tone of voice this is known as a state of ______.SynchronyActors engage in behavior that is ______when they pursue a particular objective.goal-directedWhen Mike was laid off from his job, his friend tried to understand how he felt. She considered the situation from Mike's perspective, rather than her own. This method is known as what?explicit mental state inferenceThe false-belief test is a procedure for determining if a child has developed what?explicit mental state inferenceIndividuals need to understand others' mental states in order to ______.interact with themWhen two people are observing the same object and are aware that they both are observing it, they are displaying ______.joint attentionOlga wants to pick an ace out of a deck of cards and does so without looking. Her action is considered ______Blank because she didn't have the skill to control the outcome.unintentionalWhat tool of theory of mind develops early in childhood and is automatic?Assessing intentionalityWhat tool of theory of mind is a recent evolutionary development in humans?mental state inferenceIf psychology is the science of behavior, then the ______ of language must be one its most central topics, since it exists for almost all human beings.use______ is information, often taken for granted, that is shared by people who engage each other in conversation.Common groundOn Monday morning, Chad asks Jason, "Did you see that amazing game yesterday?" Chad assumes that Jason knows which game he is talking about. This assumption of shared information is called ______ in language.common groundAs two people have a conversation, a set of utterances that communicates comprehension between them--which might include "yeah," "sure," or "mm-hmm"--is called an ______ pair.adjacencyWhen he is talking to his best friend, Tom says, "Damon and I are going out for dinner." When he is talking to a stranger, Tom says, "My partner Damon and I are going out to dinner." Crafting what you say based on the knowledge of the person you are speaking to is called ______.audience designConstructing or adjusting utterances to suit what your listener already knows is called ______.audience designAccording to research, about ______ percent of the conversations we have happen in groups of 4 or fewer individuals.90%The words and expressions that we use--our very vocabulary for communication--comprise the ______ of our language.lexiconThe rules for how we arrange words and expressions together to communicate in a meaningful and understandable way are called the ______ of language.syntaxConsider these two sentences: "The boy was sick from eating so much ice cream," and, "That boy ate so much ice cream, it made him sick." These sentences have similar ______but different syntax.lexiconsEvelyn meets Dee from Australia and is very attentive to Dee's accent. If Evelyn is like most people, what will she start doing?She will start mimicking the accent in conversations with Dee without realizing it.A ______ model is a mental representation of an event, object, or situation created at the time of hearing or reading a linguistic description.situationAndrew is telling his friend Laverne about sailing this past weekend, and Laverne immediately begins to imagine the boat and waves. She is using a ______Blank to understand Andrew's experience.situation model______ occurs when thinking about one concept causes you to think about other related concepts.PrimingBraden is a member of the guitar club at his college, and attends meetings on a weekly basis. People who are members of Braden's group would be an example of a(n) ______, while those in the "other" club (The Drum Society) are a(n) outgroup.ingroupAccording to the ______hypothesis, human brains have evolved so that people can maintain larger brainAccording to the linguistic intergroup bias, people tend to use ______ to characterize their ingroup more positively and outgroups more negatively.abstract expressionsRamona is thinking about breaking up with Thomas and shares this with her best friend. In a matter of hours, Thomas hears that his girlfriend is planning to end their relationship. This information has traveled through a networkThe basic notion that the language used by a given group of people has a significant impact on how they think is called the ______ hypothesis, after its original founder(s).Sapir-WhorfWhich of the following scenarios would provide support for the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?A culture has no word for the value of "zero"; members of this group do not conceive of a situation where there is an absence of value.______Blank is among the oldest and longest studied topics in all of psychology.IntelligenceKelly is trying to come up with a usable definition of intelligence. Which one should she pick?A person's ability to acquire, process, recall, and apply information.Which of the following is a valid argument that intelligence is more than simply knowing and remembering facts?Many different animals have intelligence related to complex problem-solving abilities.One evolutionary source of intelligence in primates, including human beings and chimpanzees, is:their social nature"Theory of ______" refers to a sense of self as separate from others in a group, and develops due to the complex social interactions that people have with others.MindWhich factor, proposed by psychologist Charles Spearman, refers to a larger set of intellectual skills that is sometimes considered synonymous with one's overall intelligence?"G"LaKeita is writing a paper on an early intelligence theorist who proposed that intelligence is one thing, a "general factor," or "g." Who will she be researching?Charles SpearmanIn early attempts to measure intelligence, this cousin of Charles Darwin assessed grip strength, the ability to accurately judge distances, and the ability to discriminate between different colors.Francis GaltonThe first true "intelligence test," used to assess the intellectual capacity of children, was developed by:Binet and Simon.Identify the most accurate statement about one's intelligence quotient (IQ). a. it has been dropping by 2-3 points every 15 years of the past 3 generations. b. it ranks an individual's intellectual ability against that of other people c. it is base entirely on one's genetics d. it has been found to change significantly between childhood and adulthood. e. on a typical bell curve of IQ scores, most people fall above a socre of 130 or below a score of 70.It ranks an individual's intellectual ability against that of other people.Natasha gives an IQ test to 15 different children, and the test is administered the same way each time she gives it. This test would be said to be ______.standardizedWhat was the primary criticism that David Wechsler had of the Stanford-Binet test, a criticism that motivated him to develop the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)?He was suspicious of using a single score to capture all of intelligence.Marcia has always had a very strong ability to adjust to situations very quickly and is good at spontaneous problem solving. According to Horn and Cattell, Marcia excels in ______ intelligence.fluidHarvard psychologist ______ has proposed that the concept of general intelligence does not adequately examine different abilities in human beings, and suggests that there are 8 different kinds of intelligence.Howard GardnerAccording to Carol Dweck, a person's ______ is a strong predictor of high (or low) performance on a given task.mindset about their own abilitiesOrlando has not been doing well in school lately, but he believes that he can do better. He thinks that his intelligence is changeable, and handles failure better than some of his classmates. According to Carol Dweck, Orlando has a(n) ______mindset.growthEvidence that gender differences have existed in different occupations for some time is provided by the fact that, in 1976, women comprised only ______ of faculty members in the field of engineering.1%In a review of the literature, it was found that women appear to be superior to men in all but which of the following areas?creative problem solvingThe phenomenon in which people's performance conforms to a stereotype, especially when the stereotype is brought to their conscious awareness, is called stereotype ______.threatTammy thinks that "justice" is related to courts and laws. Sara thinks it means revenge. Tammy and Sara have different ______ for "justice".conceptsDefine Categorya set of equivalent objectsIf you can clearly state what features are required for membership in a category and which features disqualify membership, then the category is ______.well-definedWhat is the problem with well-defined categories?many familiar categories cannot be easily definedWhat did the controversy surrounding the change in the status of Pluto demonstrate?the common problem with well-defined categoriesWhen people have a hard time saying if an object is in or out of a specific category, that object is considered a ______ of the category.borderline memberWhat does it mean to say that a category is fuzzy?The category has unclear boundaries that shift over time.Among items in a category, items that are more ______ seem to be better members of the category.typicalA penguin is a bird, but if you asked people to name 10 birds, few would include the penguin. Why?Penguins are atypical birds.What is one of the two main claims of family resemblance theory?Typical items have features that are frequent in their own category.Some categories are ______Blank, such as vehicle, motor vehicle, car, and compact car.hierarchicalWhich of the following represents the basic level of categorization? a. vehicle b. motor vehicle c. car, d. compact carc. carPeople tend to have a preference for the _____ level of categorization when they label objects.basicIf you are very knowledgeable in a particular field (chemistry, economics, etc.) you are more likely to label things in that field more ______ than a novice.specificallyPrototype theory posits that ______ determines category membership.a set of features weighted by frequencyYou are trying to determine whether a "cake" is a "dessert." What does exemplar theory suggest you will do?scan your memory for as many desserts as possibleWhy is it more difficult for people to learn a fictional concept like "blegdav"?it doesnt match our knowledge of the real worldIt is common for people to believe that some categories have an essence, a unifying property shared by all members of the category that ______.cannot be seenWhat sorts of things are people more likely to believe have an essence?living thingsHow might our tendency to think of groups of people as having essential traits contribute to having biases against some groups?essentialism can contribute to negative stereotypes