Terms in this set (82)
why do we need a transport system?
remove waste of cells, extra body fluids, distribute heat and carry materials such as hormones and antibodies
functions of the circulatory system
1.transportation: brings nutrients to cells and waste away
2. distributes heat throughout body
3.maintains acceptable levels of body fluid along with kidneys
4.defense against invading organisms
structure of the heart
1.size of your fist
2.located in the middle of your chest
3. made of cardiac muscle
4.composed of 2 pumps
when is the heart rate increased?
when work is demanded
carries oxygenated blood away from heart, not always though, thick walled, small diameter
carries deoxygenated blood to the heart, thin wall, large diameter
muscular wall, divides heart in half
small thin walled, gets blood first, collects deoxygenated blood from body
small thin walled, collects oxygenated blood from lungs
large thick walled, takes deoxygenated blood pumps to lungs (from right atria)
thickest wall, oxygenated blood to body (from left atria)
what does the heart need a constant supply of?
blood vessels that supply the heart with oxygen rich blood
what happens when coronary vessels are blocked?
what is the circulatory/cardiovascular system composed of?
blood heart, blood,heart
2 types of heart valves?
atrioventricular, semi lunar
between atria and ventricles, flaps of tissue. Directs blood into ventricule to maximize pump volume
found at the base of arteries leaving ventricules, half moon cups of tissue. open=ventricules contracted, closed=ventricles relaxed
7 blood vessels
superior and inferior vena cava, pulmonary arteries and veins, aorta (artierioles and venules)
superior vena cava
returns deoxygenated blood from heart and upper body
inferior vena cava
returns deoxygenated blood from lower body
carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs (exiting from right ventricles)
carries oxygenated blood form lungs to left atrium
carries oxygenated from left ventricles to body
where do the pulmonary arteries carry the blood to?
where does the blood enter first through the heart?
the right atrium, through the inferior vena cava and superior
ventricles contract and eject blood from the chambers
a chamber of the heart (atria or ventricle) relaxes and fills with blood
what listens to heart beats
AV valves closing, ventricles contract forcing blood out of the semilunar valve
semilunar valves close, atria and ventricles relax and fill with blood
what does the amount of blood depend on
stroke volume and heart rate
volume of blood your heart can pump
amount of heart beats per unit time
cardio output formula
stroke volume x heart rate
factors affecting heart rate
internal control pacemaker, exercise, target heart rate
internal control pacemaker
the myogenic muscles contract in unison with no external nerve stimulus, the beat is set by the sinoatrial
improves your hearts ability to provide working muscles with oxygen, increases elasticity which increases intake volume, heart can beat less to be more effective
target heart rate
once it exceeds 85% of its maximum rate your body produces more lactic acid which causes soreness. to set your target HR subtract your age from 220
3 types of blood vessels
artery, vein, capillary
microscopic tubes, 1 cell thin so that diffusion of nutrients and exchange can take place
pathway of blood
artery, arterioles, capillary, venules, veins
stretching of the arteries
why are veins thinner than arteries?
the pressure doesnt carry on through the capillaries
what stops backflow in the veins?
one way valves and the contraction of the skeletal muscles which squeeze the veins and increses pressure
what measures the blood pressure
factors affecting blood pressure
HR and contracting force
Diameter and elasticity of blood vessel walls
amount of blood
what would increase BP
clogged arteries, exercise, stress, salt
what would decrease BP
dehydration, injury, shock
functions of blood
deliver nutrients to cells and remove waste
transport method for hormones, vitamins and minerals
maintains water balance, tamp and Ph
what are the components of blood?
red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma and platelettes
red blood cells (erythorytes)
carry o2 to tissues using hemoglobin (iron+color)
biconcave to increase surface area for gas exchange
made by red bone marrow, lasts 120 days, has no nucleus
white blood cells (leukocytes)
fights disease and foreign invaders
irregular shape, no pigment
made by bone marrow, lasts 13-20 days, has a nucleus
yellow liquid containing 92% water
proteins involved in red and white blood cells
disolved and digested co2 and nutrients
blood cells and hormones from glands
clots blood by turning protein fibrinogen into fibrin
formed in red bone marrow
irregular shape, no color
first line of defense
skin, eyelashes, eyelids, mucous
where are white and red blood cells made
type of white blood cells
macrophages, B cells and T cells
where do the macrophages go?
to all tissues
where do B cells go
where do T cells go?
what do macrophages do?
destroys on the spot, engolphs and eats invaders
what do helper T cells do?
identifies entigens (markings) signals B cells
they are all cells but b
produce antibodies, matching entigens kills invaders along with helper t cells and macrophages
kills host cells and and invading viruses
supressor t cell
brings an end to the fight
memory t cells
remembers entigens so your body can fight it off next time
what is an allergy
immune system makes mistake and attacks friendly things
what is an autoimmune system?
immune system that attacks itself
how is a cancer cell developped
a normal cell mutates, divides in half and spreads
what to antibiotics do?
outside forces that can assist our bodies with defense
what is immunization
fools immune system , takes 2 similar viruses so body can recognize and kill it
what improves immune system
sleep, eating well, exersizing, cleanliness
second line of defense
platelets and white blood cells
what is droplet infection
inhaling infected droplets expelled from a sick persons lungs
a solution that stops or prevents growth of bacteria
unique protein structure on cells, recognizable like fingerprints
science of gene function and inheritence
where is genetic information found?
nucleus (command center in every cell)
what do we find inside the nucleus?
chromosones (one DNA molecule wrapped around protein beads)
universal molecule=stores information in all beings
moleular fingerprint (unique for everyone except for twins)
how many chromosones and genes do humans have?
46 and 25000