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Astro 001 Exam 1
Terms in this set (56)
What two properties of a plant affect the gravity we feel on its surface?
Mass and radius
Two planets have the same radius. If planet A is 5 times more massive than planet B, how does gravity differ on the surfaces of the two planets?
Gravity is 5 times stronger on planet A
Say that there was a planet X in our Solar System with a mass 1/4 the mass of Earth and a radius 1/2 the radius of Earth. How will the gravity on its surface compare to the surface gravity of Earth?
Surface gravity on planet X is the same as on Earth
A planet in a nearly circular orbit with its rotation axis tilted by 5 degrees relative to its orbital plane around its star would
Have seasons that are not very different from each other as compared to Earth
The rotation axis of the Earth is
Tilted at about 23 degrees relative to the axis of the Earth's orbit around the Sun
A planet has its rotation axis tilted by 88% so that it is in the plane of its orbit around its star. It rotates once every 46 hours. For how many hours a day is it dark in the winter on its South pole?
When is the waning gibbous moon highest in the sky?
About 3 am
If the Moon phase is full, what phase would the Earth appear to be in when viewed from the Moon?
At what time will the Moon set on the day of a Solar eclipse?
Stars that are in the same constellation
Are likely to be at very different distances from us
The North Star is a star in the Constellation of Ursa Minor, which lies just above the North Pole of Earth. Which of the following is true?
Ursa Minor is a Zodiac constellation in the summer but not in the winter
A particular Zodiac constellation is high in the sky at midnight in April. Where will it be in October?
Near the Sun in the daytime sky
What do you expect the spectrum of an object that is 1M Kelvin to be like?
It should peak at X-ray wavelengths
As compared to a cool star star, a hotter star emits
Shorter wavelength, higher frequency, bluer color
Radio waves can travel large distances without interference because
They have longer wavelengths than visible light
Compared to ultraviolet radiation, X-rays have a wavelength that is
Star A is 4000 K and Star B is 8000 K. Which of the following is true?
The color of Star A is redder than Star B
A star is a hot, dense gas surrounded by a cooler, low density atmosphere. What type of spectrum will a star create?
An electron in a sodium atom absorbs a photon of light and moves the next higher energy level What will happen net?
The electron will eventually emit a photon with the same energy as the one it absorbed
What makes a transition from a lower energy state to a higher energy state when a photon is absorbed into an atom?
An emission line is produced when
An electron passes from a higher to a lower energy level
Bright lines in an emission spectrum represent
Particular energies of light that are emitted from a distant object
The faintness of an object that a telescope can observe is mostly determines by the
Diameter of the opening of the telescope
In what ways does a 5 meter telescope outperform a 1 meter telescope?
Its images are 25 times brighter than a 1 meter
A mountain top is a good location for optical telescopes because the site
Is above much of the atmosphere
What causes day and night?
Rotation of the Earth on its axis
How does the Sun appear to move in the sky in the
course of a day?
East to West because of Earth's rotation. They stars
and planets move in the same way, also because of Earth's
What happens to the Earth in one year?
It orbits the Sun one time
Why do we have Seasons?
Tilt of the Earth's axis (23 degrees)
How is the Earth's axis tilted when we have summer in
the Northern hemisphere?
With the North Pole toward the Sun
What season is it in the Southern hemisphere when it
is summer in the Northern hemisphere?
What happens to the Moon in 1 month?
It moves once around the Earth
What causes the phases of the Moon?
The Sun is lighting different fractions of the part of the Moon that we see
What is the order of the phases of the Moon?
New - Waxing Crescent - First Quarter - Waning Gibbous - Full - Waxing Gibbous - Third Quarter - Waning Crescent - New
When is the full moon visible?
Only at night. It transits at midnight, rises 6 hours earlier at sunset and sets 6 hours later at sunrise
When is the new moon visible?
The new moon is visible during the day. It transits at noon, rises 6 hours earlier at sunrise and sets 6 hours later at sunset
How are the Sun, Earth, and Moon positioned when it is a new Moon?
Sun - Moon - Earth
How are the Sun, Earth, and Moon positioned when it is a full Moon?
Sun - Earth - Moon
What is a solar eclipse?
The Moon blocking the Sun's light or a location on the Earth's surface passing under the Moon's shadow
How are the Sun, Earth, and Moon positioned when it is a Solar Eclipse?
Sun - Moon - Earth. It is a new moon
What is a lunar eclipse?
Earth's shadow on the Moon
How are the Sun, Earth, and Moon positioned when it is a lunar eclipse?
Sun - Earth - Moon. It is a full moon
Why don't eclipses occur every month on Earth?
The Moon orbits the Sun in a different plane than the Earth orbits the Sun
What about eclipses of the Moons of Mars?
Mars has two small Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Relative to the Earth's Moon, they are closer to their planet and orbit faster and closer to the orbital plane of Mars around the Sun. This leads to more frequent eclipses visible from Mars
What kinds of radiation get through the Earth's atmosphere?
Visible and radio
According to Newton's Second Law of Motion, if the net force acting on the object increases while the mass of the object remains constant, what happens to the acceleration?
If the Earth were moved to half its current distance from the Sun, how would the force of gravity by the Sun on the Earth change?
It would become 4 times stronger
What did Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation tell us about how gravity works?
The force of gravity from the Sun will be stronger on an object with more mass
The Earth radius is about 6400 km. If you were in orbit in the Space Station 150 km from the ground, the force of gravity you feel from the Earth would be
Slightly weaker than when you are standing on Earth
If you were to sit on the ground, there would be a force due to gravity pulling you toward the Earth. Which of the following is true according to Newton's Third Law?
You are pushing the Earth away from yourself with the same force
What would happen to the Earth if the Sun's gravity somehow 'turned off' instantaneously?
It would continue to move in a line in the same direction it was moving when the gravity turned off
Consider a planet whose rotation axis is NOT tilted with respect to its orbital plane. What are the seasons like on this planet?
There are no seasons
If the Earth rotated on its axis more slowly than it does now
Its days would be longer
If Earth had its orbit changed so that all points along its orbit it was always the same distance from the Sun (circular orbit), how would this affect the seasons of the Earth?
They would be the same as they are now
A new planet orbits its star faster than the Earth orbits the Sun and it rotates more slowly than the Earth rotates. Which of the following is true?
The new planet has a shorter year than Earth and a longer day than Earth
What time of year is it dark all day (and night) at the South Pole of Earth?
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