24 terms

AP US History Key Terms Chapter 12


Terms in this set (...)

War of 1812 (1812-1815)
Fought between Britain and the United States largely over the issues of trade and impressment. Though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interests militarily, earning the young nation newfound respect from European powers.
Battle of New Orleans (January 1815)
Resounding victory of American forces against the British, restoring American confidence and fueling an outpouring of nationalism. Final battle of the War of 1812.
Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France.
Treaty of Ghent (1815)
Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address any of the grievances that first bought America into the war.
Hartford Convention (1814-1815)
Convention of Federalists from five New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House.
Rush-Bagot agreement (1817)
Signed by Britain and the United States, it established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, a first step in the full demilitarization of the U.S.-Canadian border, completed in the 1870s.
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff in American history, created primarily to shield New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods after the War of 1812.
American System (1820s)
Henry Clay's three-pronged system to promote American industry. Clay advocated a strong banking system, a protective tariff, and a federally funded transportation network.
Era of Good Feeling (1816-1824)
Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Monroe's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank
panic of 1819
Severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb overspeculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy.
Land Act of 1820
Fueled the settlement of the Northwest and Missouri territories by lowering the price of public land. Also prohibited the purchase of federal acreage on credit, thereby eliminating one of the causes of the Panic of 1819
Tallmadge amendment (1819)
Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southerners vehemently opposed the amendment, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
peculiar institution
Widely used term for the institution of American slavery in the South. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division between the North, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the South, where slavery became increasingly entrenched.
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line of 36°30'
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Supreme Court case that strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States by establishing that the State of Maryland did not have power to tax the bank.
loose construction
Legal doctrine which holds that the federal government can use powers not specifically granted or prohibited in the Constitution to carry out its constitutionally mandated responsibilities.
Cohens v. Virginia (1821)
Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decision of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate water. The ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the federal Constitution
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against charges proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments.
Anglo-American Convention (1818)
Signed by Britain and the United States, the pact allowed New England fisherman access to Newfoundland fisheries, established the northern border of Louisiana territory and provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country for ten years.
Florida Purchase Treaty (Adams-Onís Treaty) (1819)
Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. the united States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets.
Russo-American Treaty (1824)
Fixed the line of 54°40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America.