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88 terms

Ch. 13 - Pathology

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anisocytosis
cells are unequal in size
hypochromia
cells have reduced color (less hemoglobin)
macrocytosis
cells are large
microcytosis
cells are small
poikilocytosis
cells are irregularly shaped
spherocytosis
cells are rounded
dyscrasia
any abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood
anemia
deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin
aplastic anemia
failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow
hemolytic anemia
reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction
pernicious anemia
lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body
sickle cell anemia
hereditary condition characterized by abnormal sickle shape of erythrocytes and by hemolysis
thalassemia
inherited defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, usually seen in persons of Mediterranean background
hemochromatosis
excess iron deposits throughout the body
polycythemia vera
general increase in red blood cells (erythremia)
hemophilia
excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of blood clotting factors necessary for blood clotting
purpura
multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin
leukemia
increase in cancerous white blood cells
acute myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia (AML)
immature granulocytes (myeloblasts) predominate
acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
immature lymphocytes (lymphoblasts) predominate
chronic myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia (CML)
both mature and immature granulocytes are present in large numbers in the marrow and bloodstream
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
abnormal numbers of relatively mature lymphocytes predominate in the marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen
granulocytosis
abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood
mononucleosis
infectious disease marked by increased numbers of leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes
multiple myeloma
malignant neoplasm of bone marrow
antiglobulin test
test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes
bleeding time
time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound
coagulation time
time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube
complete blood count (CBC)
determination of numbers of blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and red cell values - MCH, MCV, MCHC
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma
hematocrit (Hct)
percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood
hemoglobin test (H, Hg, Hgb, HGB)
total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of peripheral blood
platelet count
number of platelets per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood
prothrombin time (PT)
test of the ability of blood to clot
red blood cell count (RBC)
number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood
red blood cell morphology
microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the shape of individual red cells
white blood cell count (WBC)
number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood
white blood cell differential [count]
percentages of different types of leukocytes in the blood
apheresis
separation of blood into component parts and removal of a select portion from the blood
blood transfusion
whole blood or cells are taken from a donor and infused into a patient
bone marrow biopsy
microscopic examination of a core of bone marrow removed with a needle
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
peripheral stem cells from a compatible donor are administered to a recipient
abbr: Ab
antibody
abbr: ABMT
autologous bone marrow transplantation - patient serves as his or her own donor for stem cells
abbr: ABO
four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O
abbr: ALL
cute lymphocytic leukemia
abbr: AML
cute myelogenous leukemia
abbr: ANC
absolute neutrophil count - this is the total WBC times a measure of the number of neutrophils present in the blood
abbr: ASCT
autologous stem cell transplantation
abbr: bands
immature white blood cells (granulocytes)
abbr: baso
basophils
abbr: BMT
bone marrow transplantation
abbr: CBC
complete blood count
abbr: CLL
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
abbr: CML
chronic myelogenous leukemia
abbr: DIC
disseminated intravascular coagulation - bleeding disorder marked by reduction in blood clotting factors due to their use and depletion for intravascular clotting
abbr: diff
differential count (white blood cells)
abbr: EBV
Epstein-Barr virus; cause of mononucleosis
abbr: eos
eosinophils
abbr: EPO
erythropoietin
abbr: ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
abbr: Fe
iron
abbr: G-CSF
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor - promotes neutrophil production
abbr: GM-CSF
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor - promotes myeloid progenitor cells with differentiation to granulocytes
abbr: g/dL
gram per deciliter
abbr: GVHD
graft-versus-host disease - immune reaction of donor's cells to recipient's tissue
abbr: HCL
hairy cell leukemia - abnormal lymphocytes accumulate in bone marrow, leading to anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and infection
abbr: Hct
hematocrit
abbr: Hgb, HGB
hemoglobin
abbr: H and H
hemoglobin and hematocrit
abbr: HLA
human leukocyte antigen
abbr: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
immunoglobulins
abbr: lymphs
lymphocytes
abbr: McH
mean corpuscular hemoglobin - average amount of hemoglobin per cell
abbr: MCHC
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration - average concentration of hemoglobin in a single red cell
abbr: MCV
mean corpuscular volume - average volume or size of a single red blood cell
abbr: mm3
cubic millimeter
abbr: mono
monocyte
abbr: polys, PMNs, PMNLs
polymorphonuclear leukocytes; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
abbr: PT
prothrombin time
abbr: PTT
partial thromboplastin time
abbr: RBC
red blood cell; red blood cell count
abbr: sed rate
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
abbr: segs
segmented, mature white blood cells (neutrophils)
abbr: SMAC
Sequential Multiple Analyzer Computer - an automated chemistry system that determines substances in serum
abbr: µL
microliter
abbr: WBC
white blood cell; white blood cell count
abbr: WNL
within normal limits