Evolution and Natural Selection Study Guide

... is the process in which changes in an environment pressure a species to change.
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Terms in this set (43)
the whale's flipper and the arms of a human are examples of (vestigial organs or homologous structures) because they have the same bones but use them for different functionshomologous structuresthe hip bones in whales and snakes serve no function, so they are examples of (vestigial structures or homologous structures).vestigial structures(vestigial organs or homologous structures) show that two species evolved from a common ancestor.homologous structuresall vertebrate embryos are (alike or not alike) in that they all have similar patterns of development.alikean ancestral flock of finches flew from South America to the Galapagos Islands. they spread out and adapted to all the different environments on the islands. this is an example of (evolution or artificial selection) due to (behavioral or geographic) isolationevolution, geographicmountains, volcanic eruptions, and large bodies of water are examples of (geographic or reproductive) barriers that can isolate populations.geographicsimilar structure different funtionhomologousdifferent structure similar functionanalogousevidence for evolution includesembryonic development, universal genetic code, anatomy, biogeography, and fossil recordstructures that are shared by related species and that have been inherited from a common ancestorhomologous structurebody parts that share common function, but not structureanalogous structurebody parts in animals that are so reduced in size that they are just vestiges, or traces, of homologous structures in other speciesvestigial structurebat wing and mouse armhomologous structurereptile foot and bird footanalogous structureeyes on a blind cave fishvestigial structureThe Industrial Revolution in England in the 1850's caused mass amounts of soot to be released into the air. This caused trees in the areas around factories to become dark as their bark absorbed the soot. This, in turn, affected the peppered moths in the area, which rested on the trees. These moths had two main varieties: light and dark. Moths that were not camouflaged against the tree trunks were eaten in greater quantities by predators, such as birds. How did changing the environment in this case change the number of light versus dark peppered moths in these industrialized areas?trees in the environment became darker because of soot, so dark peppered moths because better camouflaged on the tree trunks, light peppered moths were then eaten more frequently, more dark peppered moths survived and reproduced, and dark peppered moths became more numerous than light peppered moths.Darwin's Finches have been studied by Peter and Rosemary Grant for over 30 years. Since each island of the Galapagos has different environmental conditions and thus somewhat different food sources, each flock of birds that moved to a different island had to adapt to whatever food source was present. On the island called Daphne Major, the average beak size within the population changed depending on how the climate changed on the island. According to data compiled by the Grants, the average beak size of the finches on Daphne Major varied in size between about 9.4 mm to about 9.8 mm depending on the amount of rainfall between 1976 and 1985. The years the average beak size was greatest, around 9.8 mm, were dry years. 1984 was a wet year, and average beak size was about 9.4 mm. What would happen to beak size in this population of finches if the years after 1984 were dry again? Why?the beak sizes would increase again, because in dry years it is apparently a competitive advantage to have larger beaks, perhaps due to a decrease in the food supply in dry years and larger beaks being somehow more effective at obtaining and eating the available food.inherited characteristic that increases chances of survivalfitnessprocess in which organisms with traits well suited to their environment survive and reproduce at a greater rate than less well-adapted organisms in the same environmentnatural selectionstruggle for survival when a growing population causes a scarcity of resourcescompetitionchanges in DNA of individuals of a populationvariationability to survive and reproduce in a specific environmentadaptationremains of dead organismsfossil recordsimilarities and differences in amino acid sequences between organismsDNA sequencestructures in difference organisms having the same bone makeuphomologous structuresstudy of the early development of fetuses of different organisms; has documented that in the early stages of development, dogs, pigs, and humans resemble each otherembryologystructures that have reduced in size because they no longer serve an important functionvestigial structuretrue or false: artificial selection occurs when nature selects for beneficial traitsfalsetrue or false: Malthus argued that human populations grow faster than their resourcestruetrue or false: Lamarck was one of the first scientists to pro[pose that species evolve by natural selectionfalse it was Darwintrue or false: Lyell was one of the first to say that Earth must be far older than most people believedfalsetrue or false: Lamarck's inheritance of acquired characteristics has become widely accepted scientific theorytruetrue or false: Fossils proved to Darwin that species can evolvefalse