physiological questions i struggled on

define term agonist
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Terms in this set (51)
- heart rate is a good indicator of work intensity
- different target rates target different benefits
- if performer works below target heart rate no adaptations will occur
- if performer works above target heart rate anaerobic benefits occur
- highly trained athletes will work at the upper end of the band
evaluate the use of limb kinematics to enhance performance in sportvideo/motion/3D analysis of sporting action joint evaluated +ve = accurate +ve = to adjust technique -ve = requires specialist training -ve = expensive or lab conditionsexplain the difference in the relationship between air resistance and friction at the start of a sprint racef> AR the sprinter is accelerating AR is low due to low speed use of spikes maximises friction high mass of sprinter due to reduced frontal cross-sectional areaexplain the difference in the relationship between air resistance and friction at the end of the raceF = AR sprinter is maintaining maximum velocityphysiological factors affecting strengthsize of muscles e.g. large deltoids of javelin throwers muscle fibre type e.g. longer jumpers have a high proportion of FTG fibres. this is because fast twitch muscle fibres produce much greater force of contraction genetics. if both parents had high % of FT fibres, then children tend to have higher % age - peak strength at 20-30 years and after this strength deteriorates due to decreased elasticity of muscles gender. males produce more explosive strength than women due to higher muscle mass training - use of plyometrics/ explosive strength training which increases ATP activityidentify the quadriceps musclesrectus femoris vastus lateralis vastus intermedius vastus medialisoutline the functional role and type of contraction in the quadriceps muscle during the preparation and execution of the kickpreparation - quadriceps group are the antagonist and contract eccentrically execution - quadriceps group are the agonist and contract concentricallyexplain the changes in the distribution of blood to the skeletal muscles and other organs is achieved during exerciseskeletal muscles - vasodilation of arterioles to muscles dilation of pre-capillary sphincters to muscles other organs - vasoconstriction of arterioles to other organs constriction of pre-capillary sphincters to other organsoutline the timing and composition of pre-event meals an endurance athlete may use in the hours leading up to their event3 hours before - high carbohydrate meal with low GI 2 hours before - fast digesting carbohydrates with a high GIevaluate the benefit of different physiological adaptations made by the muscular and metabolic systems after a period of aerobic trainingmuscle hypertrophy of SO and FOG muscle fibres - more energy produced increased density of mitochondria - more aerobic respiration increased stores of glycogen - more metabolism of fats increased enzyme activity - increased metabolism of fats reduced fat mass - increased lean mass reduced insulin resistance - delays fatiguedescribe with an example static strengthforce applied with no movement e.g. crucifix on rings in gymnasticsdescribe with an example dynamic strengthforce applied with movement e.g. penalty kick in footballdescribe with an example maximum strengthmaximum force applied in a single contraction e.g. deadlift in weightliftingapply newtons second law of motion to show how a hockey player may maximise the balls accelerationf = ma the hockey player applies a large force to increase acceleration size of force is dependent on velocity of stick player will attempt to maximise velocity size of force is also dependent on mass of stick player may ise a heavier stick to increase forceidentify all the component parts of a lever system use a practical example from sport to show the component order of a first class leverfulcrum effort load effort arm = the distance the effort is from the fulcrum load arm = the distance the load is from the fulcrum 1st class = effort - fulcrum - load e.g. movement of head to perform a header in footballexplain, using practical examples, how force plates are used to enhance sporting performance1. to analyse gait e.g. improve technique of a marathon runner 2. to analyse posture e.g. improve persistent back pain of a rugby player 3. to measure/ improve balance e.g. to improve performance of a swimmer on the starting blocks 4. rehabilittation from injuries e.g. to enhance recovery of a football player after an ankle sprain 5. to measure force e.g. to improve take off for a high jumper 6. to optimise angle of takeoff - to improve technique of a long jumperidentify two neural receptors and explain how each regulates heart rate as the dance routine beginschemoreceptor - detect increase in blood acidity and decrease in pH causing heart rate to increase proprioceptors detect movement in joint angles causing heart rate to increase baroreceptors - detect increase in blood pressure and cause heart rate to decreaseexplain how venous return mechanisms can aid venous return and prevent blood pooling as part of the netball players recoveryvenous return mechanisms work to maximise blood flow back to the heart which means netballer wont get dizzy or feel heavy legs pocket valves in veins prevent backflow of blood in legs skeletal muscle pump causes muscles of legs to contract squeezing veins forcing blood back to the heart smooth muscle in walls of veins contracts respiratory pump causes pressure differences within thoracic cavity which aids movement of blooddescribe one weight training session to improve strength endurance for a rugby playeruse of free weights 50-75% of one rep max 15-30 reps 3-6 sets 30-60 seconds rest between sets work:relief ratio 1:1outline the physiological adaptions that may occur as a result of strength trainingmuscle hypertrophy muscle hyperplasia increase power of contraction increased strength of ligaments increased ATP stores increased enzyme activity increased tolerance of lactic acid increased recruitment of muscle fibres reduced inhibition of stretch reflexwhat is meant by balanced forcetwo opposing forces that are equal in size no change in motion constant velocity/rest occurswhat is meant by unbalanced forcestwo or more opposing forces are not equal in force change in motion acceleration/deceleration occurs `what is meant by 'net force'the sum of all forces/ resultant forces acting on a body zero if forces are balanced positive/negative if forces are unbalanceddefine accelerationrate of change of velocitydescribe three ways in which a performer can increase their acceleration during sport or physical activityincrease force - e.g. a sprinter can apply a greater force to the blocks increase friction e.g. a long jumper can wear spikes to increase friction with the ground reduce mass/weight e.g. a high jumper loses weight prior to competition improve technique e.g. a runner adjusts technique/body position so that more force is generated in a forward/horizontal direction reduce air resistance e.g. a sprint cyclists adopts a streamlined shape to minimise air resistancedefine newtons first law of motionevery object stays in a state of rest or of uniform speed in a straight line acted on by a nonzero net forceoutline one sporting situation where a wind tunnel is used to enhance performance, two benefits of this technology and one disadvantageF1 car advantages - reduce air resistance external factors can be controlled disadvantages - specialised facilitiesDefine the term frictionthe force that opposes motion of two surfaces in contactusing practical examples from sport, describe how different factors can change the amount of friction generated1) roughness of contact surface e.g. wearing spikes. rougher means more friction 2) roughness of ground surface e.g. rough athletics track. rougher means more friction 3) temperature e.g. F1 have a warm up lap to warm up the tyres because hotter means more friction 4) size of normal reaction e.g. a hammer thrower has a high mass to increase friction. the greater the normal reaction means more frictionduring a 5000 metre race, the athletes tidal volume increases. explain how neural control of breathing causes this to happenreceptors to RCC the inspiratory system stimulates nerve to increase depth of breathing phrenic nerve stimulates diaphragm to contract more strongly intercoastal nerve stimulate external intercoastal to contract more stronglydescribe how age and gender can affect VO2 maxVO2 max is reduced as performer gets older Males have a higher VO2 max than femalesevaluate the importance of a high VO2 max for an elite footballerallows players to last the full duration, the full 90 mins allows players to delay or offset OBLA and maintain intensity allows team players to play at a higher temp allows quicker recovery after anaerobic work some player such as goalkeepers do not need a high VO2 maxoutline what is meant of the preparatory phase with sporting examplespre-season training 6-8 weeks high volume of training aim to increase general fitness e.g. have physical peak fitness for the start of the rugby seasonoutline what is meant by the competitive phase with sporting examplesthe sport or activity takes place aim to peak for specific events tapering to reduce work load e.g. plan specific tactics for an up-coming rugby matchoutline what is meant by the transition phase with sporting examplesoff season at the end of competition season rest and recovery sim to maintain motivation and fitness with a variety of non-specific activities e.g. rest and recovery from physical strain of a rugby seasondescribe how the force weight acts on a sporting bodydownwards force acts from the centre of mass due to gravityusing examples form sport explain three factors affecting air resistancefrontal cross sectional area, the smaller the cross sectional area the less air resistance e.g. sprint cyclists tick head and hands in a lift knees streamlining, for example the teardrop shape of a cycling helmet is more aerodynamic smooth surface reduces air resistance e.g. wearing lycra suits in speed skatingexplain the immediate effects of jogging on the vascular systemincrease in blood flow to working muscles as more oxygen is needed for energy production vasoconstriction of arterioles and precapillary spincters to non-essential organs and vasodilation to respiring skeletal muscles increased venous return - muscle/skeletal pump, pocket valves, respiratory pump and smooth muscleswhat is the impact of regular training on lifestyle diseases of CV systemcoronary heart disease - the narrowing of blood vessels and high blood pressure stroke - damage to brain cells caused by lack of oxygen artherosclerosis - build up of plaque on the wall of coronary arteries which narrow the lumen of the arteries heart attack - damage to the cardiac muscle due to complete blockage of coronary arteryapplication of regular training on CV system that affect lifestyle diseasesexercise must be moderate intensity at least 3 times a week at least 30 minutes in duration increased RBC so there is an increased oxygen carrying capacity capillarisation - increased elasticity of blood vesselspositive impact of regular trainingless strain on heart reduces the risk of CHD reduces the risk of heart attack reduces high blood pressure reduces blood viscosity reduces risk of a stroke decreased risk of atherosclerosis reduction in weightnegative impacts of regular trainingexercise can increase risk of heart attack although this risk is very small medical advice should be sought to gain the most benefit from regular training carried out in conjunction with other healthy lifestyle changes e.g. stopping smoking