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Streamlike movements of water
Currents
Three factors that influence currents
-weather
-earth's rotation
-position of continents
What voyage did Thor Hyerdahl make in 1947?
Sailed from Peru to Polynesia
What theory was Heyerdahl trying to prove by sailing the Kon-Tiki?
Ocean currents carried the ancient Peruvians across Pacific
Horizontal movements of water that are caused by wind and occur AR or near the ocean's surface
Surface current
Compare directions in which surface currents flow near the poles and near the equator
Equator-east to west
Pole-west to east
Why do wind and surface currents appear to move in curved paths?
Earth's rotation
Apparent curved path of a moving object due to the Earth's rotation
Coriolis Effect
What happens when a surface current meets a continent?
Currents deflect
Streamlike movement of ocean water located far below the surface
Deep current
Amount of matter in a given space, or volume
Density
Measure of amount of dissolveed salts or solids in a liquid
Salinity
Process which removes water but leaves solids behind
Evaporation
In polar regions, what happens at the ocean's surface?
Cold air chills and slows down and move closer together and water becomes more dense
Why does ocean water that is covered by ice increase in density?
Dissolved solids are squeezed in water and this causes increased salinity
Why does evaporation increase density of ocean water?
Removes water and leaves solids behind
Warmer climates in coastal areas that would otherwise be much cooler ,ay be created by
Warm-water currents
Where does the Gulf Stream get tis warmth?
Tropics
Currents that keep coastal regions cooler than the inland climate year-round
Cold-water currents
The California Current carries cold water to Mexico from
the North Pacific Ocean
Cold, nutrient-rich water from the deep ocean rises to the surface and replaces warm surface water
Upwelling
El Niño
Change in water temperature in Pacific Ocean that produces warm currents
La Nina
Change in eastern Pacific ocean in which surface-water temperatures becomes unusually cool
What are some changes in weather patterns caused El Niño that can cause disasters?
-flash floods
-mudslides
-droughts
What four things does the network of NOAA-operated buoys record?
-winds
-currents
-air temp
-surface temp
Highest part of wave
Crest
Lowest part of wave
Trough
Distance between two adjacent wave crests of water troughs
Wave length
Vertical distance between the crest and trough of a wave
Wave height
Time between passage of two wave crests (or troughs) at a fixed point
Wave period
Dividing wavelength by the wave period gives you
Wave speed
Subsurface current that is near the shore and that pulls objects out to sea
Undertow
Water current that travels near and parallel to the shoreline
Longshore current
Bubbles in the crest of a breaking wave
Whitecap
Long rolling waves that move steadily and at long distances across the ocean
Swells
Giant ocean wave that forms after a volcanic eruption, submarine earthquake, or landslide
Tsunami
Local rise in sea level near the shore, caused by strong winds from a hurricane or other storm
Storm surge
Tides
Daily changes in level of ocean waterwater
Relationship between phrases of moon and tides was first discovered
by a Greek named Pytheas
The moon's pull is strongest at the place on Earth that is
directly facing the moon
Pull of the moon on the ocean causes water to bulge and create
High tides
Two factors that determine when tides occur are rotation of Earth and the
revolution of the moon
Difference in levels of ocean water at high tide and low tide
Tidal range
Tides that occur when the sun, moon, and Earth are aligned
Spring tides
Tides with the smallest daily tidal range
Neap tides
Tidal bore
Body of water that rushes up through a narrow bay or estuary during the rise of high tide and causes a very sudden tidal rise
Where do tidal bores occur?
Coastal areas of China, British Isles, France, and Canada