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52 terms

PSYC 2000 Lesson 10

STUDY
PLAY
motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological ned creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger
set point
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feeling fat, continues to starve
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
estrogen
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it.
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex
flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
industrial-organizational psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
organizational psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment
task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain balanced or constant internal state
set point
weight thermostat
instinct
an unlearned, complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
metabolic rate
body's base rate of energy expenditure
glucose
a major source of energy for body tissues
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior because of threats or rewards
incentive
a stimulus that motivates behavior
theory Y
assumes that challenge and freedom will motivate workers
high intelligence, father presence, volunteer activities
predictors of sexual restraint in teenagers
prenatal hormone conditions
research has found that an animal's sexual orientation can be altered by manipulations of
motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal
drive
an aroused or activated state that is often triggered by physiological deprivation
hurt women
Yang just spent an evening watching porn movies of attractive women who appeared to enjoy being sexually molested. This experience is most likely to lead Yang to be more willing to __
food and drink
the most basic or lowest level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for
homeostasis
for a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to maintain
without parental help
parents who wish to strengthen their children's achievement motivation should be advised to encourage children at an early age to handle responsibility __
homosexual orientation
__ is very persistent and difficult to change
instincts
fixed patterns of behavior characteristic of a species and developed without practice
insulin; glucose
increases in __ increase hunger, whereas increases in __ decrease hunger
heterosexual men
__ tend to score better on tests of spatial ability
incentives
positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called
intrinsic motivation
Mark's __ __ to play baseball in college is most likely to be reduced when his attention is focused on playing well enough to secure an athletic scholarship
premature ejaculation
research suggests that this disorder can be eliminated by repeatedly engaging in genital stimulation that is discontinued as the urge to ejaculate arises
sex and social activities
Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed than men on a semistarvation diet lost interest in
increased; carbohydrates
the level of serotonin in the brain is __ by a diet high in __
hypothalamus
the brain structure that detects sex-hormone levels and activates sexual arousal
set point
the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time