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a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior


a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

drive-reduction theory

the idea that a physiological ned creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need


a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state


a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active


the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger

set point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feeling fat, continues to starve

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning


a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males


the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it.

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex


a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills

industrial-organizational psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

personnel psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

organizational psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

structured interviews

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales

achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment

task leadership

goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

social leadership

group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support


a tendency to maintain balanced or constant internal state

set point

weight thermostat


an unlearned, complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species

intrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

metabolic rate

body's base rate of energy expenditure


a major source of energy for body tissues

extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior because of threats or rewards


a stimulus that motivates behavior

theory Y

assumes that challenge and freedom will motivate workers

high intelligence, father presence, volunteer activities

predictors of sexual restraint in teenagers

prenatal hormone conditions

research has found that an animal's sexual orientation can be altered by manipulations of


a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal


an aroused or activated state that is often triggered by physiological deprivation

hurt women

Yang just spent an evening watching porn movies of attractive women who appeared to enjoy being sexually molested. This experience is most likely to lead Yang to be more willing to __

food and drink

the most basic or lowest level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for


for a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to maintain

without parental help

parents who wish to strengthen their children's achievement motivation should be advised to encourage children at an early age to handle responsibility __

homosexual orientation

__ is very persistent and difficult to change


fixed patterns of behavior characteristic of a species and developed without practice

insulin; glucose

increases in __ increase hunger, whereas increases in __ decrease hunger

heterosexual men

__ tend to score better on tests of spatial ability


positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called

intrinsic motivation

Mark's __ __ to play baseball in college is most likely to be reduced when his attention is focused on playing well enough to secure an athletic scholarship

premature ejaculation

research suggests that this disorder can be eliminated by repeatedly engaging in genital stimulation that is discontinued as the urge to ejaculate arises

sex and social activities

Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed than men on a semistarvation diet lost interest in

increased; carbohydrates

the level of serotonin in the brain is __ by a diet high in __


the brain structure that detects sex-hormone levels and activates sexual arousal

set point

the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time

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