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The American Pageant - Chapter 25, 26
Terms in this set (40)
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern Europe
neighborhood centers in poor areas that offered education, recreation, and social activities
Those who believed that religion had to be adapted to science and that the Bible was to be mined for its ethical values rather than its literal meaning.
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper
state educational institutions built with the benefit of federally donated lands
A distinctive American philosophy that emerged in the late nineteenth century around the theory that the true value of an idea lay in its ability to solve problems.
sensationalist journalism, Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
An association formed by Anthony, Stanton, and Lucy Stone along with other, younger supporters in order to raise national awareness about the vote, which engaged in protests, parades, and several other tools to support the female vote. Became the largest volunteer organization in America in 1917, with 2 million members.
Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Founded in 1874, this organization advocated for the prohibition of alcohol, using women's supposedly greater purity and morality as a rallying point. Advocates of prohibition in the United States found common cause with activists elsewhere, especially in Britain, and in the 1880s they founded the World Women's Christian Temperance Union, which sent missionaries around the world to spread the gospel of temperance.
World's Columbian Exposition
1893; World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World
The founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
W.E.B. Du Bois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Hungarian-born and near-blind, was a leader in the techniques of sensationalism in St. Louis and especially with the New York World. His use of colored comic supplements featuring the "Yellow Kid" gave the name yellow journalism to his lurid sheets.
William Randolph Hearst
A close and ruthless competitor who had been expelled from Harvard for a crude prank. Able to draw on his California father's mining millions, he ultimately built a powerful chain of newspapers, beginning with the San Francisco Examiner in 1887.
A Puritan-reared New Englander, who in 1866 forsook the pulpit for the pen. He wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction that sold over 100 million copies.
He had leapt to fame with The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County (1867) and The Innocents Abroad (1869). He teamed up with Charles Dudley Warner in 1873 to write The Gilded Age. An acid satire on post-Civil War politicians and speculators, the book gave a name to an era. He had typified a new breed of American authors in revolt against the elegant refinements of the old New England school of writing.
Carrie Chapman Catt
By 1900 a new generation of women had taken command of the suffrage battle. Their most effective leader was a pragmatic and businesslike reformer of relentless dedication. She stressed the desirability of giving women the vote if they were to continue to discharge their traditional duties as homemaker and mother in the increasingly public world of the city.
introduced in 1870, forced Indian nations to live on barren land, it confined people so they could not support themselves in their accustomed way. It has left to the institutional of this enforced segregation.
Battle of Little Big Horn
battle in which the Lakota and Cheyenne, led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, defeated the U.S. Army led by General Custer
Battle of Wounded Knee
The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
composed of two sectors, one specializes in exploration for new resources; other specializes in mining those resources
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
mechanization of agriculture
The development of engine-driven machines, like the combine, which helped to dramatically increase the productivity of land in the 1870s and 1880s. This process contributed to the consolidation of agricultural business that drove many family farms out of existence
a party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted direct election of senators and an 8hr working day
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
fourth party system
New party system that emerged in 1896 after the McKinley/Bryan election; marked the end of a large scale effort to gain agrarian votes, diminished voter participation, weakening of party organization, & fading issues of money & civil service reform
Gold Standard Act
Signed by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.
Mid-nineteenth-century movement in European and American literature and the arts that sought to depict contemporary life and society as it actually was, in all its unvarnished detail. Adherents eschewed the idealism and nostalgia of the earlier romantic sensibility.
An offshoot of mainstream realism, this late-nineteenth-century literary movement purported to apply detached scientific objectivity to the study of human characters shaped by degenerate heredity and extreme or sordid social environments.
A recurring artistic movement that, in the context of the late nineteenth century, aspired to capture the peculiarities, or "local color," of America's various regions in the face of modernization and national standardization.
city beautiful movement
A turn-of-the-century movement among progressive architects and city planners, who aimed to promote order, harmony, and virtue while beautifying the nation's new urban spaces with grand boulevards, welcoming parks, and monumental public buildings
A leader of the pragmatist movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, he applied the philosophy to education and social reform, advocating "learning by doing" as well as the application of knowledge to solving real life problems. He became an outspoken promoter of social and political reforms that broadened American democracy.
Expatriate novelist and brother of philosopher William James. A master of "psy- chological realism," he experimented in novels like The Portrait of a Lady and The Wings of the Dove with point-of- view and interior monologue.
Boston-born artist who excelled in portraying New England's pastoral farms and swelling seas in the native realist style.
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus (1848-1907
Irish-born sculp- tor who immigrated to America and produced some of the nation's finest Beaux-Arts sculptures, including the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common.
Journalist and leading American landscape architect. His landmark designs include New York's Central Park, Boston's "Emer- ald Necklace," and the campuses of Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley.
Frederick Jackson Turner
Author of the famous "frontier thesis," in which he argued that the taming of the West had shaped the nation's character. The experience of molding wilderness into civilization, he argued, encouraged Americans' characteristic embrace of individualism and democracy. Although he is now criticized for, among other things, entirely ignoring the role of Native Americans in the West, his argument remains a keystone of thought about the West in American history.
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