government final exam study guide

democracy is the worst form of government except all those other forms that have been tried
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the european union is what type of governmentconfederationgovernment in which a single person holds unlimited powerautocracyan alliance of independent statesConfederationgovernment in which the power to rule is held by a small groupoligarchywhat is the primary purpose of the institutionhome-nurture, church-minister, government-protect/restrainname the 3 basic elements of man's naturecreated in gods image, we are all born into sin, we all have freedom of choicename the 3 essential characteristics of democracyequality, majority rule, libertygovernment by the peopledemocracya system of public rule or authoritygovernmentpowers split between the national government and the statesfederalisma small group chosen by the people to act as their representativesindirect democracythe people vote on or have a say on every policydirect democracyanother name for a pure democracydirect democracyanother name for a representative democracyindirect democracyFather of the ConstitutionJames Madisonlargely responsible for the wording of the constitutiongouverneur morrishe did extensive writing defending the constitutionalexander hamiltonwho put together the great compromiseroger shermanwho wrote most of the declaration of independencethomas jeffersonon whose political ideas was much of the constitution basedjames madisonthe first document that set down rules for the central governmentarticles of confederationthe large state plan for the constitutionvirginia planthe small state plan for the constitutionNew Jersey Planthe constitutional answer to the problem of state or population representationgreat/connecticut compromisename a weakness discussed in class, of the articles of confederationexecutive branch couldn't enforce laws and congress had no power to raise taxes.Granted to the National Government in the constitutiondelegated powersReasonably thought to be granted, but not spelled out specifically, in the constitutionimplied powerspossessed and exercised by both national and state governmentconcurrent powersSpelled out in the constitutionexpressed powersBelongs to the National Government because it is a sovereign stateinherent powersThe power of the courts to decide whether government acts are constitutionaljudicial reviewthe group that formally selects the nation's Presidentelectoral collegeprevents one branch of government from having too much power over the other brancheschecks and balencesan agreement among the statesinterstate compactadvisory board to the presidentcabinetrefers to those that believe the text of the constitution should be followed closelystrict constructionista governmental system having basic political powers distributed among three distinct and independent branchesseparation of powersrefers ti those that believe the test of the constitution should be used as a general guideloose constructionista formal agreement between two or more sovereign statestreatythe presidents rejection of an act of congressvetoThis is meant to prevent a fugitive from being able to escape the law just by fleeing to another statefull faith and credit credit clauserefers to the division of power between a central government and several regional governmentsfederalismthe number of amendments that have been added to our constitution27branch that enforces the lawexecutive branchbranch that interprets the lawJudicial Branchbranch that makes the lawLegislative Brancharticle V of the united states constitution makes provision for thisits own amendmentwhich political party was the first to appear in the new united statesfederalisthow was the development of the republican party unique in american politics1st party to go from minor to major partylist ways some southern states tried to stop the 15th amendmentpoll tax, violence, literacy tests, grandfather clauselist the 3 factors that all 50 states use to set voter qualificationsover 18, legal citizen, state residentrefers to the current office holderincumbentcourt order that forces or limits the acts of private or public officialsinjunctiondrawing electoral district lines in order to limit the voting strength of a particular group or partygerrymanderingprimary in which any qualified voter can take partopen primaryprimary in which a voter may vote only for those candidates within the party of which they are a memberclosed primaryprimary in which voters must choose between the two top finishers in an earlier primary electionrunoff primaryprimary in which a voter may vote to nominate a candidate from either partyblanket primaryrepresents workers who share the same type of job or work in the same industrylabor unionrelated to the people the average votergrass rootsrefers to those that try to influence policy makers by testifying organizing and publishing ratings of members of congresslobbyista technique of persuasion aimed at influencing individual or group behaviorpropogandawhat does a random sample rely on that helps give it a fairly accurate representation of public opiniontruly random and mathematically equalnaming of candidates for officenominationvoting by mail by those unable to go to the polling placeabsentee votingoccurs when a string candidate at the top of the ticket helps attract voters to others candidates on that party's ticket.coattail effecta voting district usually limited in size to an area where hat are no more than 500 to 1000 qualified votersprecinctbenefit to members of Congress, allowing them to mail letters postage-freecongressional franking officea general agreementconsensuslying under oathperjuryright to take private property for public useeminent domaina court order for a person to appear in court or produce documentssubpoenathe body that votes on impeachmenthouse of representativesserves as the presiding officer of the housespeaker of the housea special session of congress may only be initiated by whompresidentthe president of the senatevice presidentsize of the house435size of the senate100terms of the house2 yearsterms of the senate6 yearsdate of election of the house and senate1st tuesday after the 1st monday in Novemberminimum age of the house25minimum age of the senate30minimum length of citizenship for the house7 yearsminimum length of citizenship9 yearsPresides at the trial of a presidentchief justusbody that conducts an impeachment trialSenatebrown v board of educationseparate but equal were not constitutionalabington school district v schemppbible reading in school was unconstitutionalplessy v fergusonseparate but equal facilities were constitutionaldred scott v sanford5th amendment protected owner rights, a citizen so couldn't suemiranda v arizonaMiranda rights- never given a full and effective warning of his rightsroe v wadeabortion laws were ruled unconstitutional and made abortion safer and more accessiblebush v gorecalled a recount, claimed the recount violated the 14th amendment1stfreedom of religion, speech, press, assembly and petition4thsearches and seizures regulated5thThe right to due process of law, including protection against self-incrimination6thrights of a person accused of a crime including the right to be represented by a lawyer7thright to trial by jury13thslavery abolished14thrights of citizenship, due process and equal protection under the law15thvoting rights for former slaves19thwomen gain right to vote22ndpresident limited to two terms26thvoting age lowered to 18