Terms in this set (52)
They consists of a mixture of classic liberalism's emphasis on individual freedom and social liberalism's emphasis on collective equality. They're consistent supporters of the EU and opponents of the Iraq War. The "first past the post" system distorts their popularity.
Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg
He is the replacement for Menzies (Ming) Campbell in 2007. He is a 40-year-old ex-journalist and former member of the European Parliament.
First-Past-The-Post Voting System
The "first past the post" voting system is the election process for representatives in the House of Commons; it means winner take all. Therefore, the candidate who receives the most votes is elected and there is no need for a majority nor an element of proportional representation.
Single-Member District (SMD) Plurality
In this system, one person represents a geographical district. One person represents about 65,000 people in a district.
Proportional Voting System
A system in which each party receives a percentage of seats in a representation assembly that is roughly comparable to its percentage of the popular vote.
Alternative Voting System
In this system, the voter has the chance to rank the candidates in order of preference. The voter puts a '1' by their first choice a '2' by their second choice, and so on, until they no longer wish to express any further preferences or run out of candidates. Candidates are elected outright if they gain more than half of the first preference votes. If not, the candidate who lost is eliminated and their votes are redistributed according to the second (or next available) preference marked on the ballot paper. This process continues until one candidate has half of the votes and is elected.
A group formed together by a minority party of a country, this group forms an alternative cabinet to the one that is currently in power. The people who hold positions in a shadow cabinet often are appointed to these positions if and when their party ever comes to power.
A specified time period in which members of parliament are free to ask government ministers questions pertaining to politics. During this period government ministers are obliged to answer any question directed at them.
Speaker of the House
The presiding officer of the House of Commons. The speaker of the house is assigned the task of keeping order within the house of commons, while at the same time remaining non-partisan. The Speaker of the House is expected to remain non-partisan by doing things such as avoiding dining with fellow members of the house of commons, and renouncing all ties with his or her former political party while holding the position.
"Vote of Confidence"
A motion that may be taken within parliament which if passed would signify to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in he or she. A "vote of confidence" is rare in the United Kingdom, due to the fact that if passed, it demonstrates weakness within the majority government.
The Labor Party
One of the three major parties within the United Kingdom, considered to center-left. The labor party was recently the majority party of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2010 with Tony Blair residing as the Prime Minister from 1997 to 2007, and Gordon Brown residing as the prime minister from 2007 to 2010.
The Conservative Party (Tories)
One of the three major parties within the United Kingdom, it is considered to be the most right-leaning party of the "big three" parties within the United Kingdom. It experienced a lot of success and popularity under the leadership of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher from 1979 to 1990, she was eventually replaced by John Major who then served as the leader of the conservative party and Prime Minister from 1990 to 1997. The Current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is a conservative party member by the name of David Cameron who is at the time Prime Minister despite the fact that the conservatives do not hold a majority in parliament.
House of Commons
Excercises the main legislative power in Britain and has three main functions: to pass laws, provide finances for the state by authorizing taxation, and to review and scrutinize public administration and government policy.
House of Lords
Weaker chamber of parliament that consists of an unelected body which serves some judiciary functions, has the ability to amend and delay legislation, and is a chamber of revision in redrafting legislation.
House of Lords Act of 1999
Reduced the number of hereditary lords in the House of Lords from 1,330 to 92.
MP's of the governing party who have no governmental office and rank-and-file opposition members.
a term used to describe government policies aiming to reduce state regulation and promote competition among business firms within the market. Policies include monetarism, privatization, reducing trade barriers, balancing government budgets, and reducing social spending
named after British economist John Maynard Keynes, an approach to economic policy in which state economics policies are used to regulate the economy in an attempt to achieve stable economic growth. During recession, state budget deficits are used to expand demand in an effort to boost both consumption and investment, and create employment. During periods of high growth when inflation threatens, cuts in government spending and a tightening of credit are used to reduce demand.
New growth theory
A model of long-run economic growth that emphasizes that technological change is influenced by economic incentives and so is determined by the working of the market system.
Foreign Direct Investment
ownership of or investment in cross-border enterprises in which the investor plays a direct managerial role
an organization of European countries created in1958 to promote economic integration and political cooperation among European states. At first, the EU's mandate was primarily to reduce tariff barriers among West European states. Since then, more countries through Europe have joined the EU, and its powers have vastly expanded to include promoting common policies on immigration, technical standards, and economic and monetary regulation.
A venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. The European Union is one such organization
Maastrict Treaty (1991)
created the European Union and established the euro as its common currency. Since, it has been amended through other treaties
European Economic Community
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
European Court of Justice
The "Supreme Court of Europe", with active jurisdiction over all EU members and the power to strike down EU states' domestic laws (judicial review)
Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)
Amended the Maastrict Treaty and placed a greater emphasis on citizenship and the rights of individuals, in an attempt to achieve more democracy in the shape of increased powers for the European Parliament, a new title on employment, a Community area of freedom, security and justice, the beginnings of a common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the reform of the institutions in the run-up to enlargement.
Britain lacks a formal written constitution but has a collection of both statutory and common laws that have been passed.
Head of State/Crown
Queen Elizabeth II- In UK has no real political power more of a public figure
Head of Government/Prime Minister
David Cameron- heads the house of commons and is the head of the governing party
One central government with no sub-national governments
Small powers have been given to regional governments from the parliament. Such as Wales, Scotland etc
Fusion of Powers
Parliament is the head of the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of government.
The cabinet helps create legislation with the PM and takes responsibility for the government.
The thought that the government as a whole is in charge of taking care of the nation.
The leaders of the House of Commons and the House of Lords
10 Downing Street
The residence of the PM, as where the cabinet meets.
Quasi Quasi Non Governmental Organizations: carry out personal government acts and orders.
The citizens elect who is in Parliament and then the members of Parliament elect the PM.
government that transforms through a long, gradual process
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
Glorious Revolution of 1688
The bloodless revolution in 1688 in England that dethroned Catholic King James and put Protestant William III and his wife Mary on the throne.
Bill of Rights of 1689
Drawn up by Parliament and presented to King William II and Queen Mary, it listed certain rights of the British people. It also limited the king's powers in taxing and prohibitted the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime.
government in which voters elect representatives to a lawmaking body which chooses a prime minister to head the government
A state that can control the pattern of alliances and terms of the international order, and often shapes domestic political developments in countries throughout the world.
Reform Act of 1832
gave explicit recognition to the changes wrought in British life by the Industrial Revolution; disenfranchised 56 rotten boroughs and enfranchised 42 new towns and reapportioned others; gave the new industrial urban communities some voice in government; property qualification for voting was retained; primarily benefited the upper middle class
Cross-party British support for the welfare state that lasted until the late 1970s.
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
In this type of government everyone, including all authority figures, must obey laws. Constitutions, statements of rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power so they cannot take advantage of the elected, appointed, or inherited positions.
The economic policy of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Reduced state economic power and introduced free market and privatization with certain constraints. Deregulated the UK's market.
New Labor/Third Way
Tony Blair's idea of combining Thatcherism with some aspects of a welfare state
Term used to describe the close affinity between the United States and the United Kingdom since WWII based on common language and close geopolitical ties and dramatized by Blair's decision to support the United States' war with Irag.
A form of democracy based on the supreme authority of Parliament and the accountability of its elected representatives
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