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Psychology Chapter 7
Terms in this set (50)
Our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with changing circumstances
A relatively permanent behavior change due to experience
Learning that certain events occur together.
Example: The sea slug squirts with an electrical shock
Process of learning associations
we learn to associate two stimuli and thus anticipate events
We learn to associate a response with our behavior.
Example: A seal balances red ball on his nose and gets a fish; when told to balance it again, the response is stronger
Learning from others' experience
Who is the creator of Classical Conditioning?
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most scientists agree that it should be a science but include mental processes.
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response.
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditional response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
Also called second order-conditioning. Example: when an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts a tone and begin responding to the light alone.
The diminished responding that occurs when the tone (CS) no longer signals food (US)
The reappearance of a (weakened) CR after a pause.
Ringing the tone with no food causes salivation to decrease but when ringing again later, salivation still occurs.
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for a stimuli similar to the conditioned to elicit similar responses.
A child who was abused sees an angry face, that child may become anxious. It spreads.
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
Abby was attacked by a pitbull, when she sees a golden retriever, she is less scared. She distinguished between the two.
Fact: The thought also counts in classical conditioning. If a man was an alcoholic and knew that his alcohol was spiked with a drig that was going to make him sick, he would not be classically conditioned not to drink the alcohol anymore because ke knew that it was spiked.
Something similar to stimuli associated with sexual activity in the natural environment.
actions that are automatically responded to a stimulus.
A salivating dog in response to meat powder
behavior is strengthenedif followed by a reinforcer or dimished if followed by a punishment
behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and vise versa
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can press to get food, a device on the outside records how many times it pecks it
reinforcers guide behavior closer and closer to the desired behavior
The rat would get a reward each time it gets closer and closer to pressing the bar for food
signals responses that will be reinforced
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens a preceding response (such as food or money)
strengthens a response by a pleasurable stimulus
strengthens a response by reducing or removing something undesirable
Fact: a negative reinforcement is not a punishment-it removes punishing.
Putting on your seatbelt to turn off beeping
a reinforciing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
getting food when hungry or having a headache go away
also called secondary reinforcers is a stimulus that gains its power through its association with a primary reinforcer
If a rat knows that a light signals food, the light has become the conditioned reinforcer associated with food
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time
slot machines give out wins only some times, still drawing you in and wanting to play and has a greater resistance to extinction
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after a SPECIFIED number of responses
Once you buy ten coffee drinks you get one free
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an UNPREDICTABLE number of responses
Slot machines-you win sometimes
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified TIME has elapsed
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
checking if you got email
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
After exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior to recieve promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
Fact: Skinner was all about reinforcement!
learning by observing others
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
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