Educational Psychology- Final Exam

What is learning?
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Terms in this set (71)
sensorimotor stage (0-2 years)development of imitation, memory, and thought; recognition of object permanence; beginning of goal-directed actionspre operational (2-7 years)Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colorconcrete operational (7-11 years)solves logical problems through manipulation; law of conservation; understand reversibilityformal operations (11-15)-Abstract thought -Mental problem solving and representation of objects. -Development of the ability to develop and test mental hypotheses. -Social, multilayered, complex thoughtsobject permanencethe knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sightmoral realisman inflexible view that behaviors are either right or wrong, with no in-betweensymbolic thinkingability to pretend, play make-believe, and have an imaginationegocentrismthe preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of viewlaws of conservationcertain quantities will remain the same even if they are in different shapes or sizeslaw of centrationfocusing all attention on one characteristic of a situation but disregarding all otherslaw of reversibilityanything that can be learned can be unlearnedhypothetico-deductive reasoningA formal-operations problem-solving strategy in which an individual begins by identifying all the factors that might affect a problem and then deduces and systematically evaluates specific solutions.sociocultural theorythe approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a cultureVygotsky's theory of learningcollaborative experiences: groups interact to develop learning; social interactions and language are the mechanisms for constructing thoughts and conceptsUpper limit of the Zone of Proximal developmentlevel of additional responsibility child can accept with assistance of an able instructorLower limit of the Zone of Proximal Developmentlevel of problem solving reached on these tasks by child working alonescaffoldingthe support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growthelements of good scaffolding-Gaining and maintaining the learner's interest in the task -making the task simple -emphasizing certain aspects that will help with the solution -control the child's level of frustration -demonstrate the tasknon-associative learningsingle sensory clue, habituationassociative learningtwo or more stimulihabituationdecreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.classical conditioningpavlovoperant conditioningskinnerUncondtioned StimulusThe stimulus that already evokes an uconditional response. Ex. Meat(UCS)-->salivation (UCR).unconditioned responseIn classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.conditioned stimulusin classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned responseconditioned responsein classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)acquisition in classical conditioningthe initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned responseextinction in classical conditioningthe weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absentgeneralization in classical conditioningthe tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned responsediscrimination in classical conditioningin classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulusreinforcementin operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it followspunishmentan event that tends to decrease the behavior that it followspromps in operant conditioningan added stimulus or cue used right before a response- increasing the likelihood the response will occurshapingan operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviorhow is Bandura's concept different than behaviorism?it ignores cognition and emotion; assumes that actual reinforcement is necessary for learning to occur; rejects free will; doesn't consider environmental factorsreciprocal determinismthe interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environmentobservational learninglearning through observing rather than personal experienceattention (observational learning)To reproduce and models actions you must attend to what the model is saying or doingretention (observational learning)learners must code information and keep it in memory so they can retrieve itproduction (observational learning)students must be able to reproduce the model's behaviormotivation (observational learning)Learner must be motivated to perform the behaviourself-efficacyAn individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.why information processing models?learners manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about itmemorylearning that has persisted over timeencodingthe processing of information into the memory systemautomaticitythe ability to process information with little or no effortstrategy constructioncreation of new procedures for processing informationgeneralizationapplying info to other settingsexecutive functionthe cognitive ability to organize and prioritize the many thoughts that arise from the various parts of the brain, allowing the person to anticipate, strategize, and plan behaviorsensory memorythe initial processing from the five senses; very large capacity; 1-3 secondsessential processes: perception and attentiondetecting a stimulus and assigning meaning to it; focusing mental processesworking memoryworkbench of the memory system; 5-9 itemslong term memoryunlimited capacity, permanentmetacognition"Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that taskproblem-solvingthe process of finding solutions to difficult or complex issues.transferoccurs when a rule, fact, or skill learned in one situation is applied in another situationnear transfersimilar to initial learningfar transferdifferent from initial learning situationlow road transferalmost unconsciously transfers to new situationhigh road transferis conscious and effortful