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Chapter 10 - Europe in the Middle Ages

© 2007 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill World History
Factors of Population Increase in High M.A.
1) Conditions more settled and peaceful
2) food production increased
3) development of labor-saving technology
heavy-wheeled plow with an iron plowshare
Three-field System
a crop rotation that used two fields during spring and winter while a third lay fallow; kept the soil from being exhausted so quickly
agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by peasants
peasants legally bound to the land
Feast Day
religious holidays
3 Major Feast Days
Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost
major port and trading city in Italy with close ties to the Byzantine Empire
region in northern France known for their high-quality woolen cloth; the location was ideal for trade
money economy
an economic system based on money, rather than bartering
commercial capitalism
an economic system in which people invested in trade and goods in order to make profits
"wall people;" from the German word, "burg," meaning a walled enclosure
members of the wealthiest and most powerful families
4 Basic Rights of the Bourgeoisie
1) buy and sell property
2) freedom from military service to a lord
3) written law guaranteeing freedom for the townspeople
4)right for cities of refuge [serf can become free if living in a city for 366+ days
Physical Environment of Medieval Cities
dirty, smelly, air pollution, water pollution, noisy, danger of fire
business association
Levels within the Trades
Apprentice → Journeyman → Master
a finished product proving skills in a trade to be able to become a master craftsman
Papal States
territories around Rome in central Italy controlled by the Pope
lay investiture
secular rulers choosing people for church offices
Pope Gregory VII
fought lay investiture by going against Henry IV of Germany
Investiture Controversy
the struggle between Gregory VII and Henry IV concerning lay investiture
Concordat of Worms
an agreement between the church and state on the proper procedure of assigning church offices
Innocent III
pope whose political power was very strong; used the practice of interdict to get what he wanted
forbids priests from giving the sacraments
Christian rites (primarily baptism and communion)
very strict monastic order who were deeply involved in charity work
Hildegard of Bingen
abbess of a religious order for women; one of the first women composers; attributed to the development of Gregorian chant
established by St. Francis of Assisi; took vows of poverty and lived among the people
St. Francis of Assisi
gave up material goods and began begging for food; loved charity work
founded by Dominic de Guzmán; the spiritual "police" of the church searching out people who preached heresy
the denial of basic church doctrines
"holy office;" job was to find and try heretics
usually bones of saints or objects connected with saints that were considered worthy of worship because they provided a link between the earthly world and God; it was believed relics could heal or produce other miracles
from "universitas," meaning corporation or guild; they were educational guilds; usually created or started by kings, popes, and princes
University of Paris
first university in Europe
Oxford University
first university in England
from "lectio," meaning to read
Order of degrees in universities
Bachelors → Masters → Doctorate
the study of religion and God
Three types of masters and doctors
Law, Medicine, Theology
a philisophy that attempts to reconcile faith and reason to show that what could be accepted by faith was in harmony with what could be learned through reason and experience
St. Thomas Aquinas
attempted to reconcile Aristotle with Christian teachings; most famous work was his Summa Theologica
Summa Theologica
famous work by St. Thomas Aquinas that organized religion into a logical argument
the language of everyday speech in a particular region
Troubadour poetry
vernacular literature that was a product of nobles and knights and told of the love of a knight for a lady who inspires him to become a better man
Chanson de Geste
vernacular literature in the form of a heroic epic typically describing battles and political contests; especially popular among the lower classes
built in the basilica shape and used thick walls, round arches, and barrel vaults
used pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and flying buttresses; known for it's height and presence of windows
Black Death
most devastating natural disaster in European history; destroyed more than half of the population of Europe
"anti Jew;" a consequence of the Black Death because people didn't understand the cause of the disease; blamed the Jewish people
Pope Boniface VIII
pope who took a stand against Philip IV and his taxing the clergy
Philip IV
king of France who loved war; taxed clergy to pay for 3 wars
the seat of the Papacy for 75 years while a French pope was in control
Great Schism
two popes were elected because of the disagreement between Italy and France; one pope in Rome, the other in Avignon; resulted in a decline in church power politically and spiritually
John Hus
Czech reformer who wanted to change the church hierarchy; was burned at the stake which sparked the first major battle in the Reformation era
Hundred Years' War
war fought between England and France over the regions of Gascony and Acquitaine; changed the face of warfare with the introduction of the longbow and cannon
Joan of Arc
deeply religious peasant woman who served as a motivator for French forces at Orléans; was captured by the English and burned at the stake as a heretic
new monarchies
the reestablished states of Spain, England and France after the Hundred Years' War
tax used by Louis the Spider (XI) that was a flat tax giving a regular, consistent income
War of the Roses
war between the Lancaster family (red rose) and the York family (white rose) that culminated in the rise of the Tudor king Henry VII (who married a York woman, Elizabeth)
Ferdinand and Isabella
King and Queen of Spain who created the "most Catholic" state by driving out the Jews and Muslims from Spain