Unit 5 Terms (AP World History)
Terms in this set (118)
Ending a system, practice or institution. The abolition of slave trade ended trading slaves from Africa to the Americas but still allowed slavery. The abolition of slavery granted freedom to slaves and made owning slaves illegal. This led to the equality and freedom of a group of people.
The philosophy of making an ideal society based on socialist ideals by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively. This ideal was a result of the bad effects of industrialization where a large gap between rich and poor existed.
A branch of socialism that emphasizes exploitation and class struggle and includes both communism and other approaches. The most radical activist Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto. It envisions a classless society where wealth is redistributed and is not run by a government. Revolution is required for change. It was influential in the Russian revolution.
A political philosophy that opposes government in any form. Society runs naturally and effectively without anyone running it. It is a vision of society that gives individual liberty and property.
American Declaration of Independence
A statement of the of the reasons for the American colonies' break with Britain approved by the Second Continental Congress in 1776. It is a document that justified the reasons for independence from Britain and was written for the people of America and Britain.
Movements against the colonizer. These were resistances that fueled the need for independence from the colonizer.
- Indian Revolt of 1857
Revolt of Indian soldiers against British officers when they were required to use greased cartridges they suspected were being used to pollute them and cause them to convert to Christianity. The revolt spread across north India in the British Raj. It questioned the British authority in India.
- The Boxer Rebellion
Chinese nationalists rebelled against foreign involvement in China by surrounding the foreign embassies. The British, Germans, Russians, Japanese, and Americans quickly mounted a military expedition to relieve the embassy compound. Hay took opportunity to further refine his Open Door Policy. Six weeks later, the multinational expedition reached Peking and put down the rebellion.
Resistance to an imperial power, especially during the scramble for Africa. An example of an anti imperial resistance is the battle of Adowa in 1896, when Ethiopia defeated Italy and prevented Italy from taking over the country.
Bolivar's Jamaica Letter
Written by Simon Bolivar. In this letter he argues that liberty should come to Latin America but before true freedom can be experienced, there should be a period of transition in which a dictator should rule. It gave reason to independence and the justification of Bolivar becoming the dictator.
Term for the French middle class. They were part of the French Revolution that fought against the aristocracy. The middle class often remained with power after revolutions. During the industrial revolution, it was the golden age for the middle class.
Capitalism/ global capitalism
An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, especially as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth. This allowed free trade or free enterprise.
Agreements with European powers that gave European bankers and merchants unfair advantages in the Ottoman Empire or other empires. Foreign residents in a country living under the laws of their native country, disregarding the laws of the host country. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries European and US nationals in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right. These powers gave Europeans power in and over other countries.
Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies. They sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule;. It was typical throughout newly independent countries of latin america.
Chinese Exclusion Acts of 1882
It denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition. This stopped immigration from Asia.
Conflict between different classes in a community resulting from different social or economic positions, especially the capitalist and proletariate classes. This was often the cause of revolutions. The French Revolution was caused by the gap of power the aristocracy had in comparison to the rest of the population.
A person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom. This is seen in capitalism where free trade with no government regulation is found. Adam smith was a conservative. Classical liberalism also displays this belief and this idea is seen in the current worldwide economy.
The markets for products and services purchased by individuals or households to satisfy their specific needs. This allows free trade and free enterprise. It is used in the current economy.
A document which spells out the principles by which a government runs and the fundamental laws that govern a society. These documents establish the laws and freedoms of a society.
Independent but less developed nations controlled by private business interests rather than by other governments. This was seen when powerful European businesses controlled countries economically because of the country's dependence on it.
Emancipation of serfs/ slaves
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861, but serfs obtained no political rights. They were required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land. It is also slaves obtaining freedom. This stopped a form of forced labor and slavery.
Countries surrounded or almost surrounded by another country. This made that country dependent on the bigger country for trade. These countries come from nationalism.
An act that exploits or victimizes someone. Europeans often exploited technologically less developed countries because they had the guns to do so. They exploited their land and raw materials.
A manufacturing method for a standardized product in which fixed capital, raw materials, and labor operations are centralized and sophisticated machinery is often used. This fueled the industrial revolution and factories and businesses emerging in the industrial revolution. It became a new system of manufacturing quicker and cheaper.
Assets consisting of cash, accounts receivable, an ownership interest, or a contractual right to receive or obligation to deliver cash or another financial instrument. These economical instruments became important during the industrial revolution.
- Stock markets
The market in which shares of publicly held companies are issued and traded either through exchanges or over-the-counter markets. This allowed businesses to start and profit.
A contract whereby one party, the insurer, agrees to indemnify or guarantee another party, the insured, against a loss by a specified future contingency or peril in return for payment of a premium. This was a new system of preventing the loss of money and was a new economical system hat emerged for the industrial revolution.
- Gold standard
A monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold. It gave rise to a global currency and exchange rate, and it increased global economic interaction.
- Limited liability corporations
A type of business with limited liability for the owners, with the advantage of not paying corporate income tax. This system was a result of the globalizing economy that gave rise to many businesses.
Units of product that have been completed. These goods are sold and were made from raw materials from colonized countries. Finished goods are sent to the colonized country to sell and are usually cheaper because of industrialization.
French Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
French version of the Declaration of Independence after the French Revolution. It was signed in 1789 and the document defines a single set of individual and collective rights for all men. These rights are held to be universal and valid in all times and places. This gave rights to all men in France, excluding women and slaves, and became the center of the French Revolution. The French Revolution was to make these rights possible by overthrowing the monarchy to create equality.
The domination of one state or group over its allies. A hegemony would give power to the more advanced country and was present in many treaties and groups.
Reverse acculturation that makes the people take in the culture. This is seen in many societies that the Europeans colonized.
Systems of thought and belief. Many ideologies stemmed from the bad conditions of the major population during the industrial revolution. Ideologies also shaped religion and beliefs of imperialism.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically. Europeans imperialized and colonized many Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Imperialism often caused that country to become dependent on the colonizer. Imperialists often took advantage of raw materials of the country.
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory. Europeans colonized the Americas and mistreated natives. They also colonized Africa, Australia, and Asia.
Freedom from control or influence of another or others. Countries often want to gain independence from another country when they are treated unfairly or have a sense of nationalism. America gained independence from Britain and Greece gained independence from the Ottoman empire.
Industrial revolution/ industrialization
A conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to market. This is one of the most important revolutions as it changed the way of life in society and the economy. It also changed political ideals.
A sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. These countries have power over the world economy. Europe and America were the most developed during the twentieth centuries, and they imperialized other countries because they were more developed.
Russian term denoting articulate intellectuals as a class. A nineteenth century group bent on radical change in Russian political and social system. They often wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs. Adam smith talked about trade without government regulation. This is seen in capitalism and free enterprise. It is present in today's economy.
Liberal/ liberalism/ classical liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes. A political ideology, a branch of liberalism, which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with limited government under the rule of law and generally promotes a laissez-faire economic policy.
Migrant support networks
Networks of support for migrant laborers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These networks supported laborers from other countries and helped with employment and representation.
The idea that the end of the world is going to happen soon, and members of such groups must work hard and fast to prepare the way for Jesus, often by "purifying" society of sinners. This is a prominent belief of Christians, one of the largest religious groups in the world.
- Taiping rebellion
A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners. This rebellion forced China into unfair treaties and was the result of the increased economic presence of Britain in China.
- Ghost dance
A Native American movement in the 1890s that believed a ritualistic ceremony would result in the reanimation of Indian dead and the defeat of the white invaders into the West. This movement shows the belief of the natives that the Europeans were exercising power without consent.
- The Xhosa cattle-killing movement
Pivotal movement that broke the back of the Xhosa and ushered in a new era of colonial expansion and domination of South Africa by the British. The prophecy was that killing all cattle would bring back ancient chiefs and ancestors. P
Also called economic imperialism, this is the domination of newly independent countries by foreign business interests that causes colonial-style economies to continue, which often caused monoculture, like a country only producing one main export like sugar or oil. This made the country have economic dependence on the colonizer and made it hard for them to break off.
Social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850. Pre-industrial is a time before there were machines and tools to help perform tasks. It was before industrialization changed the ways of manufacturing and the economy.
Industrial working class. They had hard working and living conditions. The proletariate make up the majority of the population and are the poorest class. They are the driving force of revolutions.
Push and pull factors
The push factor involves a force which acts to drive people away from a place and the pull factor is what draws them to a new location. It causes people to migrate.
Belief that one racial group is superior to another. It was prevalent in the societies with slavery, especially in the Americas. It slowed down abolition of slavery and led to conflict of the racial classes.
Cotton, rubber, palm oil, sugar, guano, wheat, meat, metals, minerals
Unprocessed natural products used in production. They are taken from the colonized country to give back to the mother country. These raw materials make products and those products are sold.
An act of violent or open resistance to an established government or ruler. Many rebellions and revolts occur because of unfair conditions and treatments between classes. These revolts lead to revolution.
Political changes to make things better. Reforms improve or diminish a country.
- State pensions
An arrangement for the state to provide people with an income when they are no longer earning a regular income from employment. This is a reform to provide for the people.
- Public health
The practice of protecting and improving the health of people in a community. Public health reforms improve living conditions and clean up city conditions. These stop diseases from spreading and give higher life expectancy.
Voting rights give people the right to vote on their representative. Suffrage for equal voting rights have been fought over in the French Revolution. Suffrage allows every person to vote for laws or have a say in the government.
- Public education
The effort to provide free education for all children. These reforms improve literacy rate, and all children are able to receive an education.
Reforms in imperial policies:
Changes in the social and imperial structure of the world. These reforms change policies of imperialism.
- The Tanzimat movement
Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient. This gave the Ottoman Empire factories, suffrage, a new government, railroads, education and other things.
- The self-strengthening movement
China's program of internal reform in the 186os and 1870s based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the west. This reform changed China's politics.
Colonies in which the colonizing people settled in large numbers, rather than simply sending relatively small numbers to exploit the region, particularly noteworthy in the case of British colonies in North America. These colonies establish settlements.
Slave resistance (maroon society)
Ways that slaves resisted slavery. They did so by limiting the quantity of their work, slowing down, working carelessly, damaging property, feigning illness or injury, feigning pregnancy, running away, stealing, self-inflicting injury, suicide, and violence. Because slaves could not blatantly overthrow the system, they instead resisted it.they also created maroon societies or community of runaway slaves in the Caribbean.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion. This was a justification for European imperialism.
Spheres of influence
Areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly. An example is Europe and U.S. in China.
A canal linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today.
Temporary and seasonal migrant
Workers who remain in the receiving country for finite periods as set out in an individual work contract or service contract made with an agency. Persons employed by a country other than their own for only part of a year because the work they perform depends on seasonal conditions. These workers were seen during and after industrialization.
Transnational business (large-scale):
A business that operates in many countries. Its goods and services are produced and sold in a number of different countries. These businesses have a lot of capital and power.
- United Fruit Company
Most important foreign economic concern in Guatemala during the 20th century. The attempted land reform aimed at United Fruit caused U.S. intervention in Guatemalan politics leading to ouster of reform government in 1954. This is one of the first transnational businesses.
- HSBC/ Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
British bank that exploited the Chinese. The Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank finances global trade between Europe, India and China. A prominent bank established and based in Hong Kong since 1865 when Hong Kong was a colony of the British Empire.
The large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II. This is an example of a transnational business.
Transnational ideologies and solidarities
An international system of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy. Unity or agreement of feeling or action among countries with a common interest. This increased globalization.
States began to industrialize, expanded their existing colonies overseas, and established new colonies. This expansion led to and affected diplomacy and warfare during modern empire-building.
White Australia policy
A policy that intentionally restricted non-white immigration to Australia. This affected immigration and could be the result of racism. This created a dominant white population in Australia.
A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel. This is a sense of nationalism.
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions. This led to many ideologies and reforms. Liberty, equality, limited government and capitalism are ideals stemming from the enlightenment.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794. They caused the Reign of Terror in France.
"The incorruptible" or the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue., Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror. He was the leader of the French revolution and led to the beginning and end of the Reign of Terror .
He was an emperor of the French responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena. He gave equality and was an enlightenment activist although he ruled as a dictator.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon. A conservative, reactionary meeting, led by Prince Metternich to restore europe to prerevolution time.
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe during a time after the Congress of Vienna when conservative monarchs were trying to maintain their power. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.
A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically. The revolution caused the increase in population and allowed the start of the industrial revolution.
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright. It increased output of products and made things cheaper. It is a revolutionary system that changed the economy.
In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines. The replacement of machines caused faster and more efficient systems of harvesting and making products. This increased output and changed the economy.
British inventor of the water frame in 1769, which helped revolutionize textile production. The water frame gave an efficient energy source and gave power to the factory systems.
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. Steam power was then applied to machinery. Steam power became the prominent energy source during the industrial revolution. It allowed the factories to move away from water and was a more efficient source of energy.
A Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines, this man continued improving the engine, inventing a new type of governor to control steam pressure and attaching a flywheel.
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952. Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state.
Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea. The intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose made both Russians and Ottomans realize the need to industiralize. It showed them how technologically inferior they were to Britain and France.
Russian intellectuals in the early nineteenth century who favored resisting western European influences and taking pride in the traditional peasant values and institutions of the Slavic people. They caused nationalism in Russia.
Unity of all Slavic peoples under Russian leadership. A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague supported by Russia. It led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
Abortive attempt by army officers to take control of the Russian government upon the death of Tsar Alexander I in 1825. The revolt failed and showed how the officers wanted to control Russia.
It was fought between the British and Chinese over the opium trade. The British were ultimately victorious, and the war ended in the Treaty of Nanjing. It led to the increased economic presence of Britain in China and forced China into unequal treaties.
British Rule in India. It was when the British imperialized to India and took control of the politics and economy. The raj is the name of the British rule. The rule led to rebellion and eventually India gained independence.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor. They were a nationalist group.
Leader for independence who defeated Spanish forces in South America, liberating Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. He became a dictator and was a leader during the fight for South America's independence.
A movement to extend equal rights to women, born out of Abolition Movement. Their main goal was to get suffrage. They wanted equality between men and women. The Seneca Falls Convention was when people came together to try to obtain women's rights.
Commodore Matthew Perry
A navy commander who, on July 8, 1853, became the first foreigner to break through the barriers that had kept Japan isolated from the rest of the world for 250 years. He caused the Japanese emperor to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa and open Japanese ports to trade.
Networks of iron, and later steel, rails on which steam, later electric or diesel, locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century. This was a fast mode of transportation and made distances smaller.
A form of iron that is both durable and flexible. It was first mass-produced in the 1860s and quickly became the most widely used metal in construction, machinery, and railroad equipment.
A form of energy used in telegraphy from the 1840s on and for lighting, industrial motors, and railroads beginning in the 1880s. It was a new energy source that began to be used for lighting. The lightbulb allowed people to see after dark and was a revolution in light.
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures. He invented the lightbulb that became used everywhere.
Reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. The term is also used to describe late-nineteenth-century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class people. The different "spheres of influence." It is an age that derived from the new revolutions taking place.
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers and men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics. This affected society and the idea of equality.
An organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members. Labor unions improved the conditions of workers and were a revolt of the proletariate.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country or group of people. Nationalism often caused the rise of a new country or the independence of a nation. Germany and Greece were developed from nationalism. In the Ottoman Empire, nationalism became a dividing force because of the multiethnic population.
Otto Von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria and France and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire.
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. The Meiji restoration allowed Japan to industrialize and become a developed country. It also caused industrialization in the country.
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories. New imperialism caused underdeveloped countries to be controlled by technologically superior ones.
"Scramble" for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries like Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain acquired lesser amounts. They met in the Berlin Conference and divided Africa so they could exploit and obtain resources. This was possible because of the technology they gained from industrializing and nationalism.
King Leopold II
King of Belgium. He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State. He met in the Berlin conference and gained a large part of Africa.
During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans. This began the process of imperializing Africa and Africa was imperialized by Europeans.
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910.
British entrepreneur and politician involved in the expansion of the British Empire from South Africa into Central Africa. The colonies of Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia were named after him.
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics.
A canal built by the U.S. across Panama to connect Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It allowed trade to cross the Atlantic to Pacific and vise versa without having to sail around the continent. It made trade faster and Panama had a great profit.