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culture that values uniqueness

High Context

culture that uses indirect and ambiguous communication; relies on nonverbal cues to relay meaning

Low Uncertainty Avoidance

culture with few social rules for interaction; fast self-disclosure


culture that values loyalty, harmony, and togetherness; being apart of the group.

Low Context

culture that uses direct and specific communication; rely on denotative meaning of message

High Uncertainty Avoidance

culture in which clear formal communication guides social interaction; slow self-disclosure

High Power Distance

culture in which there is an emphasis on status; "know your place"

Low Power Distance

culture where all men and women are created equal and there is a de-emphasis on power differences. ex: bosses work near entry level employees.


a culture that values success, independence, achievement, and ambition; traditional gender roles.


a culture that values relationships, harmony, and well being of community; not traditional gender roles.


culture that views time as a commodity; fast paced, you should be on time or you're considered rude or careless!


culture in which time is more fluid; late is acceptable.

Communication Codes

Idioms, jargon, gestures differ from culture to culture


a word's implied or secondary meaning


a word's literal meaning

Perceptual Process

Selection (selecting what to notice) ---> organization (categorize and make patterns) ---> Interpretation (interpreting messages sent to make perception)


the most representative example of a category. ex: sarah is the best friend i have ever known.

personal construct

bipolar mental yardstick we use to measure people. ex: friendly or unfriendly.


predictive generalization


how you are expected to behave in certain situation. we follow this in conversation/ actions.

I-It communication

communication that occurs when we treat others like objects or non-humans.

I-You communication

communication that occurs when we recognize the other as a person and treat him or her based upon a social role him or her occupies.

I-thou communication

communication that when we recognize and understand an individual's unique characteristics as well as open ourselves completely to this person. (interpersonal communication)

Buber's levels of communication


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Self-Actualization- experiences that help us reach our fullest individual potential.
Self-Esteem- indicate that we are valued
Love- connect us to others
Security- protect us from harm
Food, water, and shelter - help us survive

Communication as Action Model

model in which communication as a one-way process. (very linear)
-The action model starts with a source (who comes up with a thought or an idea you wish to communicate)
-Then to convey the idea you must encode it; put your idea into the form of language.
-Through the process of encoding, you create a message, which consists of the verbal and or nonverbal elements of communication to which people give meaning.
-Then you send your message through a channel; type of pathway for message. Ex: face-to-face, email, text message, etc.
- Then the person receiving the message is the acts as the receiver and will decode, or interpret the message.

Communication as Interaction Model

model that takes up where the action model leaves off.
-Includes all the same elements, but differs in two ways; 1) recognizes that communication is a two way process and 2) adds two elements to the mix: feedback and context.
-Every action has a reaction; every message has feedback.
-Feedback includes both the verbal and nonverbal responses to a message.
-Explains that our messages are shaped by the feedback we receive fr om others and by the environment in which we are interacting.
-Context: the physical or psychological environment in which communication occurs.
However... the problem with the communication as interaction model is that it still portrays communication as a sequential process.

Communication as Transaction Model

model that researchers believe today.
-Recognizes that both people in a conversation are simultaneously senders and receivers.
-Communication flows in both directions at the same time.
-Also, communicators create and interpret messages within personal fields of experience. The more communicators' fields of experience overlap, the better they can understand each other.
- COMMUNICATION TO COMMUNICATION CONVERSATION; instead of sender to sender (not easy/step by step).

2 dimension of communication competence

communicating effectively and communicating appropriately

perceptual schema

the mental framework for organizing information

Attribution Theory

a theory that deals with the way in which we wonder what to attribute to certain behaviors. ex: why are they doing that? and we come up with a possible reason; sometimes with error.

self-serving bias

attribution error where we attribute our success to internal causes or our failures to external causes

fundamental attribution error

attribution error where we attribute other people's behavior to internal causes more often than external causes


attribution error where we focus on one characteristic of a person and attribute a wide variety of behaviors to that characteristic


when people communicate about the way they are communicating


kissing, hugging, touching to make one feel loved or more comfortable

Feminine Communication

communication with an emphasis on relationships.

Masculine Communication

communication that has an emphasis on status and problem solving.

Percentage we rely on nonverbal communication to relay a message


Expectancy Violations Theory

when someone violates our expectations, we either view it as positive, negative, or ambiguous.

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