one substance mixes evenly throughout another substance
a type of homogeneous (uniform) mixture in which one substance dissolves (mixes evenly) in another substance
The two parts of every solution are ____ & ____.
the solute and solvent
the part of a solution that is dissolved*
(*dissolved = one substance, the solute, is evenly mixed into another substance, the solvent)
the bulk* of the solution that the solute dissolves in
(*bulk = in larger quantity)
able to be dissolved Ex: sugar and salt are both soluble in water
cannot be dissolved Ex: sand is insoluble in water
How can you tell which substance is the solute and which is the solvent?
The solvent is larger in quantity. It has a greater volume than the solute.
Ex: Air solute: oxygen (21%) solvent: nitrogen (78%)
a solution that contains a SMALL amount of dissolved solute (a weak solution) - a relative term that does not indicate an exact amount
a solution tht contains a LARGE amount of dissolved solute (a strong solution) - a relative term that does not indicate an exact amount
a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute that it can hold at a given temperature
a solution that contains LESS than the maximum amount of solute that it can hold at a given temperature
a solution that contains MORE than the maximum amount of solute that it can normally hold at a given temperature.
molecule in which one end has a positive charge and the other end has a negative charge
attraction between UNLIKE molecules
Ex: droplets of water are left behind in a glass because water molecules are attracted to molecules in the glass
attraction between LIKE molecules
Ex: water molecules are attracted to other water molecules (the negative, oxygen end of one water molecule is attracted to the positive, hydrogen end of a nearby water molecule)
Three ways to increase the RATE at which a SOLID solute dissolves in a LIQUID solvent
1. Stir/mix/shake 2. Heat the solvent (raise the temperature) 3. Crush the solute into smaller pieces
a type of mixture, a solution, in which one metal (or nonmetal) dissolves in another metal
Types of Solutions: gas in a gas
oxygen dissolved in nitrogen (air)
Types of Solutions: solid in a liquid
sugar dissolved in water
Types of Solutions: liquid in a liquid
alcohol dissolved in water (rubbing alcohol)
Types of Solutions: gas in a liquid
carbon dioxide dissolved in water (club soda/ seltzer)
What type of solutes dissolve best in water?
polar solutes (solute that are composed of charged particles)
How does water dissolve a solute?
Water is a polar molecule (one end is positive and the other end is negative). Water molecules attract POLAR solute molecules. The negative end of water attracts the positive part of the solute. The positive end of water attracts the negative part of the solute. This attraction pulls solute particles apart enabling them to mix throughout the water.
State the relationship between temperature and solubility.
**SOLID solutes are MORE soluble as temperature increases. **GAS solutes are LESS soluble as temperature increases.
Examples of alloys
steel, brass, bronze, 14 kt gold, sterling silver
At 45 degrees Celsius, the maximum amount of NaNO3 that can dissolve in water is 110g. How would you classify the solution if only 50 grams of NaNO3 is added to the water at 45 degrees Celsius?
The solution is unsaturated; it contains less than the maxiumum amount that could dissolve at that temperature.
At 80 degrees Celsius, the maximum amount of KCl that can dissolve in water is 50g. How would you classify the solution if 50 grams of KCl is added to the water at 80 degrees Celsius?
The solution is saturated; it contains the maximum amount of solute that could dissolve at that temperature.
At 50 degrees Celsius, 80 g of KNO3 is completely dissolved in 100 ml of water. (80 g is the maximum amount of KNO3 that can dissolve in 100 ml of water at 50 degrees). Over time the solution COOLS down to 20 degrees Celsius and is left UNDISTURBED. All of the solute still remains dissolved even though only 33 g of KNO3 can normally be dissolved at 20 degrees. How would you classify this solution?
The solution is supersaturated; it contains more than the maximum amount of solute for a particular temperature.
(In this case, it contains 80 g of solute at 20 degrees Celsius when the saturation point for this temperature is 33 grams.)
Points along the line of a solubility curve represents the amount of solute needed to create a _______ solution.
The area BELOW the line of a solubility curve represents a solution that is ____________.
The area ABOVE the line of a solubility curve represents a solution that is ___________.