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A nutrient that is required in significant amounts of the diet. Includes proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.


made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and small amounts of nitrogen. Must be 15% of diet.

Protein Function

needed for cell turnover, the constant breakdown and regeneration of cells, or tissue repair


composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. divided into three groups, monosaccharides, disaccarides, and polysaccarides, makes up 60% of diet


single sugar molecules, includes glucose, fructose and lactose


two simple sugar units joined together, includes sucrose, lactose, and maltose


contain up to thousands of glucose units. Include starch, fiber, and glycogen.

Carbohydrate Function

primary role is energy provision,


also known as fat, contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, make up 25% or less of diet

Saturated Fat

mostly animal fat, damaging when too much is consumed

Unsaturated Fat

less harmful fat

Lipid Function

supplies fatty acids for healthy cells, brain, and nervous system, they store energy and are necessary for insulation and protection of organs, also regulate hormones

Lipid Negatives

contribute to hear disease, cancer and weight


organic substances, containing carbon, that cannot be produced by the body, they are needed in small amounts to perform specific metabolic functions

Vitamin A

growth and repair of body tissues

Vitamin C

promotes healthy cell development

Vitamin D

builds bone mass and prevents bone loss

Cobalamin (B12)

blood formation and promotes healthy nervous system


required for metabolic functions


major mineral, needed for bone and tooth formation


major mineral, needed for oxygen transport


major mineral, needed for energy metabolism and used in DNA structure


major mineral, helps nerves and muscles function


trace element, aids in glucose metabolism


trace element, regulates growth and development


trace element, aids in digestion, metabolism and reproduction


ultra trace element, promotes bone health

Dietary Reference Intakes

aka DRIs, recommendations of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences for intake of vitamins and minerals, emphasizes long term health

Recommended Dietary Allowance

intake that meets the nutrient need of almost all healthy individuals in a specific age and sex group

Adequate Intake

intake when sufficient scientific information is unavailable to estimate RDA

Estimated Average Requirement

intake that meets the estimated nutrient need of half the individuals in a specific group

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

maximum intake that is unlikely to pose risks of adverse effects in moth all healthy individuals in a group

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