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32 terms

Macronutrients

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Macronutrient
A nutrient that is required in significant amounts of the diet. Includes proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
Protein
made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and small amounts of nitrogen. Must be 15% of diet.
Protein Function
needed for cell turnover, the constant breakdown and regeneration of cells, or tissue repair
Carbohydrate
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. divided into three groups, monosaccharides, disaccarides, and polysaccarides, makes up 60% of diet
Monosaccharide
single sugar molecules, includes glucose, fructose and lactose
Disaccaride
two simple sugar units joined together, includes sucrose, lactose, and maltose
Polysaccaride
contain up to thousands of glucose units. Include starch, fiber, and glycogen.
Carbohydrate Function
primary role is energy provision,
Lipids
also known as fat, contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, make up 25% or less of diet
Saturated Fat
mostly animal fat, damaging when too much is consumed
Unsaturated Fat
less harmful fat
Lipid Function
supplies fatty acids for healthy cells, brain, and nervous system, they store energy and are necessary for insulation and protection of organs, also regulate hormones
Lipid Negatives
contribute to hear disease, cancer and weight
Vitamins
organic substances, containing carbon, that cannot be produced by the body, they are needed in small amounts to perform specific metabolic functions
Vitamin A
growth and repair of body tissues
Vitamin C
promotes healthy cell development
Vitamin D
builds bone mass and prevents bone loss
Cobalamin (B12)
blood formation and promotes healthy nervous system
Minerals
required for metabolic functions
Calcium
major mineral, needed for bone and tooth formation
Iron
major mineral, needed for oxygen transport
Phosphorus
major mineral, needed for energy metabolism and used in DNA structure
Magnesium
major mineral, helps nerves and muscles function
Chromium
trace element, aids in glucose metabolism
Iodine
trace element, regulates growth and development
Zinc
trace element, aids in digestion, metabolism and reproduction
Boron
ultra trace element, promotes bone health
Dietary Reference Intakes
aka DRIs, recommendations of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences for intake of vitamins and minerals, emphasizes long term health
Recommended Dietary Allowance
intake that meets the nutrient need of almost all healthy individuals in a specific age and sex group
Adequate Intake
intake when sufficient scientific information is unavailable to estimate RDA
Estimated Average Requirement
intake that meets the estimated nutrient need of half the individuals in a specific group
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
maximum intake that is unlikely to pose risks of adverse effects in moth all healthy individuals in a group