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participant point of view

i, me, my, we ,us ,our, first person point of view

nonparticipant point of view

he, him, she, her, they, them, third person point of view

omniscient narrator

the author can enter the minds of all the characters

selective (limited) omniscient narrator

the author limits his omniscience to the minds of a few of the characters or to the mind of a single character

objective narrator

the author does not enter a single mind, but instead records what can be seen and heard.

literal of historical level

the events that are actually happening in the story on a surface level

the political level

the level on which human beings relate to others in a community and in the world

moral or psychological level

the way in which the self relates to the realm of ethics

spiritual level

the universal level on which a person relates to the cosmos, the way of the pilgrim (i.e. a free spirit rebelling against the repression of absolute authority, free will, the power of the individual etc.)

flat character

two dimensional. a simple character defined by a lack of complexity

round character

three dimensional, the characters is fully developed with the level of depth and complexity associated with real people

static character

does not significantly change over the course of the narrative

dynamic character

this character changes during the course of the literary work

archetypal character

these characters embody a certain kind of universal human experience (the blind seer, the guardian, the earth mother, the damsel in distress, etc.)

physical conflict

man vs. man, man vs. nature, involves the 'elemental' clash between humans competing or struggling against one another or against society

internal/ psychological conflict

man vs. self, involves the inner divisions or turmoil of single character

metaphysical conflict

man ys. supernatural, man vs. fate, involving the clash between a human character and fate or some type of deity

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