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38 terms

chem ch 4.4

15) Gravity
Universal attraction of all objects to one another
16) Electromagnetism
Attraction or repulsion based on charge or poles
17) Strong nuclear force
Force holding the nucleus of an atom together
18) Week nuclear force
Force causing subatomic particles to change into one another (nuclear radiation)
19) Gravity is described by
Einstein's general relativity
20) General relativity and quantum mechanics
Contradict each other
21) Difference in use
Relativity is for larger objects, quantum forces for electrons or something to small to ever see
22) What does quantum mechanics describes
How forces and motion work at an atomic level
23) Atoms release energy
Is specific amounts only, not just any amount, there is a pattern
24) Electrons excited state
When you add energy to an atom it causes electrons to get out of its assigned spot and randomly fill all of the other higher energy layers
25) Eventually
The atoms will move back to the original position and die down which released the energy that was put in.
26) When atoms drop from an excited state back to the original position
They admit light as energy
27) Photons
Depending on how much or far the electrons goes back depends on the photon energy it releases, so in its goes 2 it could be green light, 1 would be red light, 3 could be ultra violet light.
28) Light and examples
Refers to all electromagnetism, not just light we can see, radio waves, micro waves
29) They all travel at the speed of light but what is the difference say 3
Frequency, wavelength, and energy
30) Neils bohr hydrogen light bulb proves discrete amounts
The electricity goes through the gas and all the atoms electrons jump and when they come back down only one color of light come out instead of the rainbow b/c there was only a specific energy level drop to produce only that color in that atom
31) What hold atoms together and keeps electrons near
EM force
32) Attractions
Like repel, and opposites attract
33) If opposites attract why do -'s travel around the +'s not connect like magnets
b/c at the same time as it is trying to ge close to the proton it is also staying as far away from the other electrons keeping it from connecting
34) If Hydrogen only has one electron so there is nothing to keep it away from the proton, then why don't they connect
b/c the electron is so fast and powerfull it keeps falling around the atom instead of getting to the middle, like the earth around the sun, instead of moving directly into the sun
35) Pauli exclusion principle
You cannot have more than two electrons in one orbital (on the same line b/c of this repulsion
36) Orbital
The area with the highest probability that the electron travels in
37) The high energy
Keeps them spinning around
38) How does an electron move
We don't know b/c they are too small to see we can just predict the area.
39) Heisenberg uncertainty principle
We can never know where an electron Is and where it is going at the same time
40) What does the S orbital look like
A sphere
41) What does the second P orbital look like
A crazy shape and the more you add the more circular shapes are added
42) The more positive neutrons
The closer the electrons orbit to the nucleus
43) Why do we sometimes skip d and f
only a large nucleus can squeeze all of those orbitals into one energy level
44) Aufbau principle
Electrons will occupy the lowesr energy orbital available
45) If electrons were forced to be in the same orbital b/c of a large number of electrons
They are assumed to go in oppo directions from each other, which is represented by the arrow
46) What holds the nucleus together
Strong nuclear force
47) EM forces want to blow the nucleus protons +'s apart
but neutral neutrons lessen the affect
48) Without enough neutrons, and what is this
the atom will break apart know as radioactive decay
49) Radioactive decay acts fast in isotopes
b/c they have more electrons than the normal atom should
50) Mole
Measurement used for a group of atoms b/c scientists can use atoms they are to small
52) Law of multiple proportions
The same elements may combine to for different compounds like hyfrogen and oxygen to form water but other as well like hydrogen peroxide, ect.
53) Law of conservation of mass
Mass in not created or destroyed the mass of the product must equal the reactant