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15) Gravity

Universal attraction of all objects to one another

16) Electromagnetism

Attraction or repulsion based on charge or poles

17) Strong nuclear force

Force holding the nucleus of an atom together

18) Week nuclear force

Force causing subatomic particles to change into one another (nuclear radiation)

19) Gravity is described by

Einstein's general relativity

20) General relativity and quantum mechanics

Contradict each other

21) Difference in use

Relativity is for larger objects, quantum forces for electrons or something to small to ever see

22) What does quantum mechanics describes

How forces and motion work at an atomic level

23) Atoms release energy

Is specific amounts only, not just any amount, there is a pattern

24) Electrons excited state

When you add energy to an atom it causes electrons to get out of its assigned spot and randomly fill all of the other higher energy layers

25) Eventually

The atoms will move back to the original position and die down which released the energy that was put in.

26) When atoms drop from an excited state back to the original position

They admit light as energy

27) Photons

Depending on how much or far the electrons goes back depends on the photon energy it releases, so in its goes 2 it could be green light, 1 would be red light, 3 could be ultra violet light.

28) Light and examples

Refers to all electromagnetism, not just light we can see, radio waves, micro waves

29) They all travel at the speed of light but what is the difference say 3

Frequency, wavelength, and energy

30) Neils bohr hydrogen light bulb proves discrete amounts

The electricity goes through the gas and all the atoms electrons jump and when they come back down only one color of light come out instead of the rainbow b/c there was only a specific energy level drop to produce only that color in that atom

31) What hold atoms together and keeps electrons near

EM force

32) Attractions

Like repel, and opposites attract

33) If opposites attract why do -'s travel around the +'s not connect like magnets

b/c at the same time as it is trying to ge close to the proton it is also staying as far away from the other electrons keeping it from connecting

34) If Hydrogen only has one electron so there is nothing to keep it away from the proton, then why don't they connect

b/c the electron is so fast and powerfull it keeps falling around the atom instead of getting to the middle, like the earth around the sun, instead of moving directly into the sun

35) Pauli exclusion principle

You cannot have more than two electrons in one orbital (on the same line b/c of this repulsion

36) Orbital

The area with the highest probability that the electron travels in

37) The high energy

Keeps them spinning around

38) How does an electron move

We don't know b/c they are too small to see we can just predict the area.

39) Heisenberg uncertainty principle

We can never know where an electron Is and where it is going at the same time

40) What does the S orbital look like

A sphere

41) What does the second P orbital look like

A crazy shape and the more you add the more circular shapes are added

42) The more positive neutrons

The closer the electrons orbit to the nucleus

43) Why do we sometimes skip d and f

only a large nucleus can squeeze all of those orbitals into one energy level

44) Aufbau principle

Electrons will occupy the lowesr energy orbital available

45) If electrons were forced to be in the same orbital b/c of a large number of electrons

They are assumed to go in oppo directions from each other, which is represented by the arrow

46) What holds the nucleus together

Strong nuclear force

47) EM forces want to blow the nucleus protons +'s apart

but neutral neutrons lessen the affect

48) Without enough neutrons, and what is this

the atom will break apart know as radioactive decay

49) Radioactive decay acts fast in isotopes

b/c they have more electrons than the normal atom should

50) Mole

Measurement used for a group of atoms b/c scientists can use atoms they are to small

52) Law of multiple proportions

The same elements may combine to for different compounds like hyfrogen and oxygen to form water but other as well like hydrogen peroxide, ect.

53) Law of conservation of mass

Mass in not created or destroyed the mass of the product must equal the reactant

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