AP Human Geography Rubenstein, Chapter 2 - Key Terms
Terms in this set (38)
The ratio and the number of farmers to the amount of arable land.
the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Arithmetic Density // Arithmetic Population Density
the total number of people divided by the total area. (This measure is also called population density.)
The number of living organisms, specifically people, and crops, that a region can support without environmental degradation.
A complete enumeration of a population.
Child Mortality Rate
also known as under-5 mortality, refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five.
such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. Chronic diseases are the cause of 70% of all deaths in the US. (70% = 1.7 million each year.)
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
childbirths per 1,000 people per year (in estimation review points).Another word used interchangeably is "natality".
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1000 individuals per year.
The tendency for a growing population to continue growing after a fertility because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country it moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Demographic Transition Model
The transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
Scientific study of population characteristics.
The number of people who cannot work.
A map that uses dots to show population density and other features.
the period of time required for a quantity to double in size or value. It is applied to population growth, inflation, resource extraction, consumption of goods, compound interest, the volume of malignant tumours, and many other things which tend to grow over time.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlements.
Focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition. There are five possible stages.
a branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Eugenic Population Policy
Government policy designed to favor one racial sector over others.
Expansive Population Policies
government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
A conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to the market.
infant mortality rate (IMR)
The number of children who die before age one per 1000 children per year in a country.
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. At birth, it is the average number of years a newborn infant can be expected to live
the development of modern medicine
A very large, heavily populated city or region
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage by which a population grows in a year
When the world's rate of population increase outruns the development of food supplies.
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Physiological Density // Physiological Population Density
Total population of an area divided by the amount of arable land.
What ethnicites that a population is made up of.
A sudden large increase in the size of a population
A graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a human population which normally forms the shape of a pyramid.
restrictive Population Policies
Policies that restrict the growth of a population, usually enforced by the government.
the ratio of males to females in a population
Standard of Living
Measured by standards such as real (i.e. inflation adjusted) income per person and poverty rate. Other measures such as access and quality of health care, income growth inequality and educational standards are also used. Examples are access to certain goods (such as number of refrigerators per 1000 people), or measures of health such as life expectancy. It is the ease by which people living in a time or place are able to satisfy their needs and/or wants.
stationary population level
no population growth
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) through her lifetime, and she were to survive from birth through the end of her reproductive life. It is obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time
zero population growth (ZPG)
is a condition of demographic balance where the number of people in a specified population neither grows nor declines, considered as a social aim.