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Women's Test Study 1
Terms in this set (84)
3 cycles of abuse
1. Clouds/Tension building
2. Storm/acute battering incident
3. Sunshine/Tranquil phase
Where does fertilization take place?
the ampulla (mostly)- outer third of fallopian tube
Three types of decidua
What develops in the pre-embryonic stage?
cellular multiplication: (morale) blastocyst and trophoblast formation, implantation, decidua formation, placenta development (only partially- not functional until 4th week)
cellular differentiation: germ layers, chorion and amnion development, umbilical cord development
What develops in the embryonic stage?
Tissue differentiation further into essential organs and main external features including sex differentiation
What is developed by the fetal stage (so is present at the beginning of the fetal stage)?
every organ system and external structure that will be found in the full term infant
Hormone menstural cycle
How often and how long to be feeding on each breast? (q_hrs)
15-20 min on each breast q3hrs
When does involution occur?
after leaving milk in the breasts after feedings= down regulation
What hormone does skin to skin contact promote?
Usual onset of engorgement?
RDA protein intake during pregnancy (in grams)?
Recommended amount of Fe needed for pregnant mothers?
What about for Fe deficient mothers?
Which fish have the most mercury?
Shark, swordfish, King mackerel, Tilefish
REMEMBER: the SHARK fought the KING with a SWORD on a TILE
How long can sperm survive in the reproductive tract?
How long can ova survive after ovulation?
What is a ball of 12-16 blastomeres called?
What is the endometrium called after implantation?
Three layers of decidua (starting from closest to blastocyst)
decidua basalis, decidua capsularis, decidua vera,
Where will the placenta develop for the maternal side?
For the fetal side?
Where does the amnion originate?
What is the BOW originate from?
amnion and chorion adhering and containing amniotic fluid
How long is the pre-embryonic stage of development?
1st 14 days after conception
Is characterized by cellular differentiation and multiplication and implantation
What is the time range of the embryonic stage of development?
Begins on day 15, continues until approximately 8 weeks or until the embryo reaches a crown rump length of 3 cm
Tissue differentiates into essential organs, main external features develop, internal sex organs differentiate
What is the time range of the fetal stage?
8th week to end of development; every organ and external structure that will be found in a full term infant is found
What type of teratogen is associated with meconium stained fluid?
What is the triad of sxs for polycystic ovarian syndrome?
Obesity, amnorrhea, hirsutism related to the excess of cortisol
4 stages of Rape Trauma Syndrome?
Acute/ disorganization- many emotional sxs, alterations in sleep
Outward adjustment- denial and suppression
Reorganization-must alter self concept and resolve feelings; may develop long term health problems
Integration/ Recovery- recognizes she is not to blame, begins to trust others, begins to feel safe again
What cellular changes occur in the uterus shortly after conception?
Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of cells which increases the uterine walls and they become thicker
What hormone maintains the corpus luteum early in pregnancy?
What adaptation does the airway facilitate in order to aid breathing in pregnancy?
Decrerased airway resistance
Why does nasal stuffiness, congestion and nosebleeds occur more often in pregnancy?
Due to estrogen induced edema and vascular congestion of nasal mucosa
Increase in maternal pulse rate by____
BP increases or decreases during pregnancy?
Decreases; reaches lowest point during 2nd trimester
What is the venal cava syndrome?
Also called supine hypotension: Is when a pregnant mother lies flat on her back and the pressure of the fetus on the vena cava causes dizziness, clamminess, hypotension
What would cause physiologic anemia?
Plasma volume increase is greater than erythrocyte increase resulting in the percentage of whole blood that contains erythrocytes is slight decreased
What is ptylism
excessive secretion of saliva
Cause of lower back pain and interventions to improve it?
Gravity and progressive lordosis.
Interventions-wide base of support, pelvic rocking, supportive low-heel shoes, firm mattress, abdominal support garment
Cause of round ligament pain? Interventions to help?
stretching and pressure of heavy uterus on ligaments; sharp pain that shoots to the inguinal area
Interventions: flex knees to abdomen, warm baths, heating pad, support uterus with pillow, change positions, rest WALKING DOES NOT HELP
What is the pattern of fatigue during every trimester
1st=worse, 2nd=better, 3rd=worse
What secretes Hcg in early pregnancy?
What is the main fxn of hPL (human placental lactogen)
Insulin antagonist, decreases maternal metabolism of glucose to favor fetal growth
What products can be used to treat pregnancy related nasal stuffiness?
Ocean spray nasal spray, cool air vaporizer
What is the recommended treatment for vulvar varicosities?
Elevation of hips with pillow
Normal HR for fetus is
110-160; if they cannot be auscultated by 10-12 weeks EGA anticipate order for sonogram
When a mother is counting fetal movements, how often should she count NORMALLY?
What if there is less than 3 in one session? How long should she count for?
Count 3x/ day for 20-30 min sessions; should feel at least 3 in one session!!
Less than 10 movements in 3hrs=contact healthcare provider; also report if there is: overall slowing of movements, no fetal movements in the morning,
Pregnancy visit guidelines
Q4wks for 1st 28 weeks
Q2wks until 28-36 weeks
Q1wk after 36 weeks until birth
Colostrum can be manually expressed in pregnancy as early as the __ week of gestation.
It will start to leak spontaneously from the breasts during the ___ trimester
Breathing changes from ___ to ___ in pregnancy
abdominal to throacic
Function of estrogen with breast development during pregnancy?
Develops ductal system of breasts to prepare for lactation
3 risks associated with Gestational Diabetes for mother
Difficult labor (due to macrosomic infant)
Hydramnios-excessive fetal urination
What is hydramnios?
Excessive fetal urination
What is the cause of the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and what is the risk?
Caused by vascular damage secondary to gestational diabetes; results in the uterus not growing and no longer becoming a safe place for the baby
What is the physiological mechanism of action behind hyperbilirubinemia in a baby whose mother has gestational diabetes?
the baby becomes polycythemic due to the decreased ability of the mothers Hgb to release O2 to the infant (due to it being glycosylated). The liver ends up not being able to metabolize the increased billirubin from polycythemia (bursted RBCs?).
Why does Respiratory distress syndrome happen to babies born from mothers with gestational diabetes?
Because of the macroitic size of the infant and its lungs not being able to adequately pump oxygen to the rest of the body.
What g/dL amount would be considered a SEVERE iron deficiency and put a baby at increased risk of low birth weight, still birth and neonatal death
What is the dx sxs of sickle cell anemia?
Similiar to anginal pain; acute recurring painful episodes of tissue, abdominal and joint pain; areas of your body not getting O2
Classify the following SA terms
Missed- fetus died but not expelled
Imminent-cervix opens, increased bleeding, cramping
Complete-all products of conception expelled
Threatened-cervix closed, unexplained bleeding, cramping
Incomplete-cervix open, part of the products of conception are retained
What is the diagnosis parameters needed to dx pre-eclmapsia
140/90 AFTER 20 wks AND proteinuria and edema
What is the name of the Rh antibody screen
Indirect Coombs test
Maternal risk if Anemic
Increased susceptibility to infection, tire easily, increased risk of pre-eclampsia, increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage, poor tolerance to normal blood loss at birth, delayed tissue healing, cardiac failure with severe anemia
What are the clinical sxs of ectopic pregnancies?
One-sided and diffuse lower abdominal pain, REFERRED RIGHT SHOULDER PAIN, bleeding, fainting, dizziness
How would you treat a mother with an ectopic pregnancy?
Pelvic exam, labs including beta-HCG, laparoscopy, surgical removal, RhoGam if Rh negative
What pregnancy complication is accompanied by dark-brown, prune juice colored bleeding?
Hydatidiform Mole/ H-Mole
What are the clinical signs and sxs of cerebral edema secondary to pre-eclampsia?
HA, hyper-reflexia, edema
Early and Late signs of Worsening Preeclampsia
Early: increasing edema worsening HA, visual disturbances, N,V, bleeding gums
Late: epigastric pain, confusion, decreased UO
Severe Pre-eclampsia signs
Pulmonary edema, cyanosis, epigastric or RUQ pain, thrombocytopenia, fetal growth restriction
When is mg sulfate therapy used?
for women with pre-eclampsia
Purpose of amniocentesis
to obtain an amniotic fluid sample to look for chromosomal and biochemical determinations
What hormone is responsible for cervical ripening
Function of prostaglandins during pregnancy
vasodilation, induction of labor (decrease BP, increase blood flow)
Released from any sites of tissue damage
When are the external genitals finished growing in utero?
By the 12th week
The true pelvis is defined as
the boundaries of the pubic symphysis and the sacrum and coccyx and the lateral ischial bodies
What are the duration of the following stages
What are clinical pathways?
Specific essential nursing activities that use data to evaluate outcomes
Think-procedure to do foley catheter
Alternative therapies for Menopause
yoga, black cohosh, phytoestrogen, DHEA
The cells of the trophoblast that grow down into the lining of the endometrium are called the?
What not to take with Fe supplements
Kool Aid, Milk, Tea
Timeline for milk production:
1-4 days: Colostrum
3rd day: Transitional milk
Mature milk: foremilk, hind milk
Treatment of Engorgement
Warm compress before feeding (1-2 min)
Cool compress after feedings
Hand expression prior to feed
Gentle massage during feeding
Pump as needed
Cabbage leaves-leave on 15-20 min
How long will breast milk last at
Refrigerator- 5 days
Normal change to gallbladder during pregnancy?
Pruritius happens secondary to retained bile salts
Non stress test reflects____
Intactness of CNS
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