44 terms

US History: Chapter 7- The Gilded Age

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Cornelius Vanderbilt
-United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses
transcontinental railroad
-Railroad that linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
gold scandal 1869
-Scam conducted by Gould and Fisk concerning Ulysses Grant, the treasury, gold, and the market; in which they drastically overspeculated the price of gold, and it sent the price skyrocketing. Got caught and treasury released gold
labor unions
-An organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions
knights of labor
-American labor organization (1869) that welcomed all members of the "producing classes;" fought for an end to child labor, equal pay for woman, 8-hour work day, safer conditions, and nationalization of railroads and telegraph lines
Haymarket bombing (1886)
-Chicago Haymarket Square, bitter labor battles lead to an unidentified person throwing a bomb that killed seven police officers and lead to many more wounded when police opened fire
2nd Industrial Revolution
-A wave of late 19th century industrialization that was characterized by an increased use of steel, chemical processes, electric power, and railroads. Spread through US and Europe
populist movement
-Political movement initiated by farmers and members of labor unions in the late 1800's. Wanted to limit the power of big businesses and have the government regulate banks, railroads, and improve working conditions
William McKinley
-25th Republican president during the Spanish-American War, annexed Hawaii and put US currency on the Gold Standard; assassinated in 1901 by Leon Frank Czolgosz
William Vanderbilt
-Cornelius' son who inherited the railroad empire worth millions and doubled it, known for his greed
Andrew Carnegie
-Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892, which soon dominated the American steel industry
Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 1890
-Law passed by Congress in 1890 that outlawed monopolies and banned "every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade"
capitalism
-An economic system based on private property and free enterprise
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
-A labor organization formed in 1886 with Samuel Gompers as its first elected president, chiefly concerned with issues in the workplace such as wages, hours, and safety on the job
Jacob Riis
-Danish immigrant, who became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote "How The Other Half Lives" in 1890
Samuel Gompers
-Creator of the American Federation of Labor, he provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers
muckrakers
-Writers of the Progressive Era who pioneered investigative journalism and exposed social and political corruption of the time
Teddy Roosevelt
-26th US president who helped conserve natural resources, regulated business trusts and monopolies, and supported passage of Pure Food and Drug Act, built&controlled Panama Canal
anti-trust
-Laws that prohibit companies from becoming monopolies, regulates unfair competition by federal and state
monopolies
-Corporations that gain complete control of the production of a single good or service, creating no competition
William H. Taft
-27th US president, Chief Justice,leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party, a pioneer in international arbitration and advocate of world peace verging on pacifism, strict anti-socialist
homestead act
-1862, provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it, encouraged westward migration
Dawes General Allotment Act
-1887, dissolved tribes, ended tribal ownership of land, allotted specific acreage to individual Indians, and forced Indians to accept values of white American culture
Morrill Act
-1862, distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges
Woodrow Wilson
-28th US president, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage, Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
John D. Rockefeller
-American industrialist and philanthropist, founder of the Standard Oil Company, (dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust) He revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy
social darwinism
-Philosopher Herbert Spencer's doctrine drawn from Charles Darwin's biological concepts, said that a process similar to Darwin's natural selection in animals was at work in society
Alexander Graham Bell
-Invented the telephone in 1876
homestead strike
-1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company, killed 10 workers in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike
pullman strike
-1894 widespread railroad strike brought on when Eugene Debs American Railway Union voted to boycott the Pullman Company, US gov. stated strikers were obstructing mail and sent troops to protect trains, 4 day battle broke out
black gold
-Slang term for oil
battle of little big horn
-In 1876 General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, this was the last victory for native americans. Major part of the Great Sioux War
battle of wounded knee
-US soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native Americans in 1890, ending the Indian Wars
Terrence Powderly
-American Labor Leader who led the knights of labor from 1879-1893
political machines
-Political organization composed of politicians and political workers who owe allegiance to a political boss
the jungle
-Most famous of the muckraking novels, published in 1906 by Upton Sinclair; described shocking working conditions and primitive health standards in Chicago stockyard and meat-packing plants
food & drug administration
-FDA regulates the product labeling and advertising for food, drugs, cosmetics, and medical products
federal reserve
-A national banking system, established in 1913, that controls the U.S. money supply and the availability of credit in the country
federal trade commission
-Eliminated unfair business competition in interstate commerce
gilded age
-1870s - 1890s; time period that appeared good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor. Time during rise of wealth & industrialization
progressive movement
-Early 20th century reform movement, wanted to return control of the government to the people, to restore economic opportunities, and to correct injustices in American life
tenements
-Poorly constructed and overcrowded urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers
reservations
-Areas of land set aside by the US government for Indian tribes, lands under federal jurisdictions
urbanization
-Growth of cities over rural growth