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A protein's ________ structure refers to the twisting, spiral shape formed by the sequence and chemical properties of its amino acids.


The type of protein-energy malnutrition characterized by a general lack of protein in the diet is called ________


What is the name of the sphincter that separates the stomach from the small intestine?


The richest dietary source of resistant starch is ________


Lactose intolerance is caused by

an insufficient production of the enzyme lactase

A ________ fatty acid has hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid.


A/n ________ food is one in which nutrients are added that did not originally exist in that food.


The process in which a protein loses its shape and function when exposed to acids, heat, and heavy metals is ________.


Which lipoprotein transports dietary fat out of the small intestine?


Cell membranes are primarily composed of


The human body is organized into the following structural levels (smallest to largest):

atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, systems.

When the stomach of an adult is full, it can expand to hold approximately

4 cups

The human GI tract is approximately ________ feet long. (Write your answer as a numeral.


During exercise, which of the following triggers the breakdown of stored fat?


In photosynthesis, the pigment ________ absorbs sunlight to make glucose.


Individuals with celiac disease must eat gluten-free foods, which can be made from

rice and potato flour

Inside each villus of the small intestine are capillaries and a small lymph vessel called a ________.


A ________ is a spherical compound made up of bile and phospholipids that prepares dietary fat for absorption.


The process of combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called ________

mutual supplementation.

All of the following are symptoms/side effects of ketosis EXCEPT

high blood cholesterol.

Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?

a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate

In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat


Saccharin use is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans.


Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed and transported more quickly than long-chain fatty acids.


The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called ________


The majority of ________ digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine


Bile, the greenish fluid that emulsifies dietary fat, is made in your gallbladder.


The primary function of MUCUS in the stomach is to

protect the stomach cells from gastric juices (e.g., HCl).

Celiac disease is easy to diagnose, as its symptoms do not mimic any other intestinal disturbance.


Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ________.


All of the following are parts of an amino acid molecule EXCEPT

a fatty acid group

Chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid group of another amino acid are ________ bonds.


What dictates the structure of a protein molecule synthesized by the body

the DNA inside the nucleus of the cell

Well-planned vegetarian diets can reduce the risk of all of the following chronic diseases EXCEPT


Plant foods tend to be high in ________ fats.


Saccharin use is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans.


Which of the following is an example of a soluble fiber?


A lack of fiber in the diet can lead to sacs or pouches that protrude from the wall of the large intestine in the disease called ________.


Which of the following statements is FALSE about sterols?

Sterols contain a glycerol backbone and one fatty acid.

Which of the following is NOT true about essential fatty acids?

They are found in meat and dairy products

Studies show that the use of fat replacers will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity.


Two amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond to form a dipeptide. What is the by-product of this process?


Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?


Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to be in positive nitrogen balance?

a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant

When blood glucose levels drop, the hormone ________ brings glucose out of storage to raise blood glucose levels.


A triglyceride is comprised of ________

3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol.

The major form of fat in both food and the body is ________


Bile is made in the liver and stored in the ________.


The enzyme pancreatic amylase continues the digestion of ________.


What is chyme?

mixture of partially digested food, water, and gastric juices

Not requiring further digestion, dietary vitamins and minerals are small enough to be absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract.


The "powerhouse" of the cell that produces most of the ATP is/are the


Which of the following would be an appropriate treatment approach for someone suffering from GERD?

lose weight and quit smoking

During transcription, ________ copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the cytoplasm for synthesis. (Write your answer as an abbreviation in lower and upper case letters.)


Unless labeled as zero trans fatty acids, most margarines will have more trans fatty acids than butter.


Sex hormones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid?


Secreted from many glands of the body, ________ are chemical messengers that trigger a physiological response.


Polypeptides are a string of ________ amino acids.

more than 10

What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat?


Diets high in protein are associated with low blood cholesterol levels.


Individuals with the disease phenylketonuria (PKU) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame. Why?

People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.

As they are NOT digested in humans, resistant starches are harmful to the colon.


All legumes are complete proteins.


The term that describes a fatty acid containing one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain is ________.


The wavelike contractions that move food along the GI tract are called ________.


The label on a box of chocolate cookies claims that they are "low-fat." By law each serving must contain ________

3 grams or less

Where in your body does the majority of the digestion and absorption of food occur?

small intestine

The acidity of the stomach allows for all of the following EXCEPT

preparing dietary carbohydrates for absorption in the small intestine

Liquids have a higher satiety value than solid foods.


A deficiency of protein can lead to a condition called ________ in which fluid accumulates in the body's tissue spaces.


After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells?


Which of the following species of fish would likely contain the highest levels of contaminants?


The immune system plays a major role in the development of a food intolerance


The absorption of proteins occurs in the ________

small int.

Consuming individual amino acids and protein supplements can build muscle and improve strength.


Ketones are produced for energy when fat is broken down because ________ intake is insufficient.


Which physiological trigger/s will result in the sensation of hunger?

low glucose levels

Alkalosis is a condition in which the pH of the blood becomes too basic.


Marasmus is a serious condition resulting from inadequate intakes of protein and energy.


The pancreatic hormones insulin and ________ are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels


Lipids that contain multiple carbon-ring structures are ________.


Protection against heart disease is a potential benefit of a diet rich in simple sugar.


Which of the following describes lipids?

organic nutrients that are insoluble in water

Even if the Nutrition Facts panel states 0 g trans fats, the product could still have ½ g of trans fat per serving.


The insoluble fiber that provides the main structural component of plant cell walls is ________


Which of the following are the preferred fuels for most body functions?

carbs and fats

All of the following are major classes of dietary lipids EXCEPT


If an ingredient label indicates a product contains partially hydrogenated oils, it will almost assuredly contain trans fats.


Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy.


The ________ load of a food is determined by the grams of carbohydrate it contains multiplied by its glycemic index


The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the ________

amine group

In the body, buffers are very important in ________

maintaining acid-base balance in the body.

Collectively, the nerves of the gastrointestinal tract are referred to as ________ nerves.


The key structural components of a cell's membrane is(are) ________.


Which of the following is NOT true about essential fatty acids?

found in dairy and meat products

Studies show that the use of fat replacers will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity.


The ________ is the smallest unit of matter that exhibits the properties of growth, reproduction, and metabolism.


Meat is NOT a good dietary source of glycogen. Why?

Most of the glycogen found in meat is broken down when the animal is slaughtered.

Which of the following is an example of a soluble fiber?


What is the cephalic phase?

earliest phase of digestion when the brain prepares the body in anticipation of food

Bile is released into the ________ in response to the ingestion of fat in the diet.

small int.

The recommended intake of ________ fat is less than 7-10 percent of total energy.


The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a(n) ________ amino acid


The majority of ________ digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine.


People attempting to lose weight will be most successful if they limit their consumption of fat to less than 15% of kilocalories


Invisible or "hidden" fats are ones that are translucent at room temperature


Which of the following hormones is released when your blood sugar is too high?


The immune system plays a major role in the development of a food intolerance.


Currently there is no cure for celiac disease.


What part of gastric juices in the stomach kills bacteria and germs you may have consumed?

hydrochloric acid

Typically, ingested food remains in the stomach for 2 to 4 hours before traveling to the small intestine.


Under normal physiological conditions, every cell of the body is capable of making each type of protein needed by the body.


A/n ________ is a functional grouping of similar cells that are joined together to form functional sheets or cords of cells.


Tight rings of muscles that control the movement of food through the organs of the gastrointestinal tract are ________.


Diets high in ________ and trans fatty acids contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer


Defensive proteins that protect the body from viruses, toxins, allergens, and bacteria are ________.


Proteases are

enzymes that break down protein in the small intestine.

A/n ________ is a body protein that is stored in a gland and secreted to an organ to restore normal body conditions or balance.


Tiny units of matter that cannot be broken down by natural means are called ________.


Why are phospholipids NOT an essential nutrient?

our body manufactures them

In general, animal-based fats are high in saturated fats.


When consumed, a high glycemic-index food can cause a sudden rise in blood glucose levels.


Hypoglycemia is seen ONLY in people with type 1 diabetes.


The term complex carbohydrates refers to


Sodium bicarbonate is secreted by the pancreas and functions to ________.

neutralize stomache acid

The pancreatic hormones insulin and ________ are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels.


Fructose is also known as


Individuals with untreated ________ are at risk for developing ketoacidosis.

diabetes mellitus

Fatty acids released from storage travel in the blood attached to the protein ________.


How do proteins differ from carbohydrates and fats?

Proteins contain nitrogen.

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