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Cultural Anthropology

Terms in this set (94)

-subsistence/production strategies (foraging, pastoralism, horticulture, agriculture and industrialization)


*foraging-
-reciprocity- generalized, balanced, negative, positive
-generalized- birthdays- you get something, give someone something for their birthday... you don't expect anything [immediately] in return
-generalized and balanced- men go to hunt, women gather- both bring something
-balanced- some immediacy.

hunting animals in the wild
-gathering plants
-sexual division of labor: women gather and men hunt
-foraging societies are Egalitarian
-gender differences are not so sharp...
-Mbuti Pygmies: Ituri Forest of Equatorial Africa
-Inuit/Eskimos: Northern Canada/Arctic
-Ju/Hoansi: Kalahari of Botswana and Namibia

Egalitarian is men and women sharing equality in their relationships together


*pastoralism-
-raising livestock
-division of labor based primarily on age and gender
-reciprocating and redistributing meat
-patririlinear desent
-polygyny
-transhumant pastoralism
-nomadic pastoralism
-the Neur and Dinka of Sudan
- Massai of Kenya
-Mongols of Mongolia

only sons can inherit cattle, daughters cant


horticulture-
-Semi-mechanized or not mechanized [at all]
-Suidden horticulture
-slash/burn

-mixed substinence stratedy
-Swidden agriculture (slash and burn)
-bush fallowing
-gender division of labor
The Lau's of Northern Tah==haial==land, the Ashanti of general Ghana
-EXTENSIVE

(make fire breaks to act as barriers to protect brush from fires



*agriculture-

The raising of crops and animals for human use

*industrialization-

Process of industrial development in which countries evolve economically, from producing basic, primary goods to using modern factories for mass-producing goods. At the highest levels of development, national economies are geared mainly toward the delivery of services and exchange of information.



distributive strategies (reciprocity, redistribution, market exchange)
negative reciprocity
-intertribal sector
-tribal sector balanced reciprocity
-village sector
-lineage sector
-house generalized reciprocity






-houshold: [household] [household] [household]

-clan: (several households) [household <clan> household] [household]

-great-clan [household <clan> household household]

-hamlet [[household <clan> household household]]

phratry (links two or more hamlets)

-subtribe (six total, each a cluster of phratries)

-tribe (sambia)

-anga tribes (seven total, including the sambia)







Nested community means that the nested area is the area within the culture's reach.


are all the different groups that have hamlets different tribes or just the sambia? They're just the sambia



confederacy --- phratry ---- hamlet

((so it's kind of like a neighborhood and 10-20 houses would be a hamlet... so like a town, then a neighborhood, then a street))

people in a hamlet are all related








confederacy

^
|


phratry

^
|

hamlet

^
|


clans

^
|

lineages




confederacy would consist of hamlets

a clan is two or more lineages that can pinpoint a common ancestor

a phratry is neighboring hamlets - so they're based on common geographical territory


the next step above confederacy is the tribe

confederacy is more political???

a confederacy doesn't rely on geography as much, its more political
phratrys are more political too


shamanism and the men's cult-has to do with religious ceremonies and rituals- they believe they have a connection to ghosts and spirits and that shamen are the ones who can communicate with them for the people

they use their ancestors to heal and protect them [from strangers]- they're more benevolent
so they perceive ghosts to be malevolent


malevolent

benevolent
> feminine spirit



CONFUSING CONFEDERACIES
-the sambia have two types of "confederacy" (pg 15)
-the intraphratry type consists of just one phratry, whose members live in the same valley, share ritual customs, and believe they have a common ancestry
-the second type joins more distantly related hamlets from two or three phratries, whose temporary unity allows for much larger initiation rituals
-this second type should be called an interphratry confederacy (the word is misprinted as "intraphratry" three times in the same paragraph on page 15)
-neolocal
(ex inuit/Eskimos)- becoming independent of household grew up in... establishing new household(s)
HAVE TO GO WHERE THE JOBS ARE (OR HUNTING) SO NEED MOBILITY SO NEED OWN HOME FOR OWN HOUSEHOLD TO BE ABLE TO BE INDEPENDENT IN THIS WAY. OUR SOCIETY IS AN EXAMPLE OF NEOLOCAL
-patrilocal
Living with dad's family- you move in with your father's family. All of husbands wives and their kids move in with husbands parents/grandparents
one of the most common patterns if you're just counting the amount of fa...
-matrilocal (residence)-less common than both of those. Is when the mother/wifes family move in with the wifes family
-bilocal residence- have the option to live with either husbands family (parents) or wifes family (parents)
-avunculocal- refers to an uncle... is residence with the uncle... it's always specifically the mother's brother.




Father vs. Mother's Brother
-in some small-scale societies, the male authority figure is not father but mother's brother

triangle (unfilled) = circle connected with square w/o bottom to unfilled triangle
equal sign leads down to filled in triangle

-avunculocal residence is one expression of the close bond between mother's brother and sister's son
(so he's almost been adopted by his mother's brother)


so chart changes to
triangle (unfilled) = circle connected with square w/o bottom to unfilled triangle
equal sign leads down to filled in triangle
with dashed diagonal line from unfilled right triangle to filled in triangle and filled in triangle equals unfilled circle
-houshold: [household] [household] [household]

-clan: (several households) [household <clan> household] [household]

-great-clan [household <clan> household household]

-hamlet [[household <clan> household household]]

phratry (links two or more hamlets)

-subtribe (six total, each a cluster of phratries)

-tribe (sambia)

-anga tribes (seven total, including the sambia)







Nested community means that the nested area is the area within the culture's reach.


are all the different groups that have hamlets different tribes or just the sambia? They're just the sambia



confederacy --- phratry ---- hamlet

((so it's kind of like a neighborhood and 10-20 houses would be a hamlet... so like a town, then a neighborhood, then a street))

people in a hamlet are all related








confederacy

^
|


phratry

^
|

hamlet

^
|


clans

^
|

lineages




confederacy would consist of hamlets

a clan is two or more lineages that can pinpoint a common ancestor

a phratry is neighboring hamlets - so they're based on common geographical territory


the next step above confederacy is the tribe

confederacy is more political???

a confederacy doesn't rely on geography as much, its more political
phratrys are more political too


shamanism and the men's cult-has to do with religious ceremonies and rituals- they believe they have a connection to ghosts and spirits and that shamen are the ones who can communicate with them for the people

they use their ancestors to heal and protect them [from strangers]- they're more benevolent
so they perceive ghosts to be malevolent


malevolent

benevolent
> feminine spirit




CONFUSING CONFEDERACIES
-the sambia have two types of "confederacy" (pg 15)
-the intraphratry type consists of just one phratry, whose members live in the same valley, share ritual customs, and believe they have a common ancestry
-the second type joins more distantly related hamlets from two or three phratries, whose temporary unity allows for much larger initiation rituals
-this second type should be called an interphratry confederacy (the word is misprinted as "intraphratry" three times in the same paragraph on page 15)