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Biochemistry, Sharma, Central Michigan University
Terms in this set (33)
2.1 Water in the bloodstream maintains the ___ ___ and ensures optimal ___ to all tissues so that fuel chemicals and ___ are readily supplied to all cells in the body.
2.1 Water enters the body via the ____ and leaves the body in many different ways. Under normal conditions, ____ excretion, ____ excretion, and ____.
2.1___ and ___ act as a reserve.
Tissue and intracellular water
2.1 a decrease in plasma water makes it ___ concentrated or ___ compared to tissue fluid.
2.1 Water in the tissue space moves into the bloodstream via ___
2.1 The best way to eliminate an unsafe substance from the body is ___ via the ___.
2.1 Ions such as Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, ect are very (nonsoluble/soluble) in water.
2.1 Groups that can hydrogen bond with water in a molecule to make the molecule (more/less) water soluble.
2.1 Aromatic and alkyl groups tend to make molecules (more/less) soluble in water.
2.1 List the following alkyl chains from most soluble to least soluble:
2.1 The fasted chemical reactions are:
The second fasted reactions are:
2.2 Na is high ____ the cell while K is high ___ the cell.
2.2 The low intracellular Na within the cells help enterocytes in ____ and in ____ to absorb chemichals within the ____ and ____ into the bloodstream.
the small intestine
Renal tubular cavity
2.2 The ____ difference causes a membrane potential across the plasma membrane of cells.
2.2 Calcium is (Extracellular/intracellular) in the ER of cells. This is important since calcium is an important (Extracellular/intracellular) signal chemical.
2.2 Significant change in shapes of proteins result in their ____ or ____.
activation or inhibition.
2.2 What is formed when carbonic acid (H2CO2) is broken down due CO2 dissolving in water?
CO2 + H2O →(CAB)→ ____ →→→ H+ + HCO3-
2.2 Bicarbonate acts as a ___ in the bloodstream
2.2 ___ ___ are used as cofactors by certain proteins. These ions can form multiple bonds with various atoms simultaneously. This is because they possess ___-orbitals which are flexible in accommodating electrons.
2.2 Redox reactions (oxidation-reduction) generate large amounts of ___.
2.3 Large chemicals include ____, ____, lipids, ____, and their combinations.
proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
2.3 The ability of cells to join small chemicals to form larger chemicals is called:
2.3 Except for (proteins/Nucleic acids/lipids/carbs), the other three large chemicals are polymers.
2.3 polymers are synthesized from building blocks known as
2.3 A ___ is a small chemicals that reacts with another chemical of the same type to form two units joined together; this same reaction is repeated over and again with the same type of monomer so that chains of varying length are produced.
2.3 In order to be a monomer, a chemical must have at least ___ functional groups on the same molecule that react with one another.
2.3 A functional group is part of a molecule that is ___.
b. amino acid
I. Hydroxyl and Phosphoanhydride
II. Amine and Carboxyl
III. Hydroxyl and Hemiacetal
Protein, Amino Acid, Amine and Carboxyl
Carbohydrate, Monosaccharide, Hydroxyl and Hemiacetal
Nucleic Acid, Nucleotide, Hydroxyl and Phosphoanhydride
2.3 Two monomers = ___
Three monomers = ___
Ten monomers = ___
Twenty Monomers = ___
2.3 If a polymer chain is long enough, the surrounding water molecules force the polymer chain to ___. Depending on the sequence and type of monomers makimg up the polymer chain, this may take on a highly regular repeating pattern known as ___ ___.
2.3 a flexible 3D folding of a polymer is known as a ___ ___.
2.3 when 2+ polymer chains associate with one another to form an even more complex shape, it is known as ___ ___.
2.3 Carbohydrates that are covalently attached to proteins form ___ and ___.
carbohydrates that are covalently attached to lipids form ___.
glycoproteins and proteoglycans
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