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Osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts

What are the four major cell types that populate bone tissue?

Osteon (Haversian System)

The structural unit of compact bone. It is an elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone.


Each matrix unit of a compact one.

Central Canal (Haversian Canal)

A canal that runs through the core of each osteon, containing small blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of the osteon's cells.

Perforating Canals (Volkmann's Canals)

Canals in long bone that lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the central canals and the medullary cavity.


Hairlike canals in long bone that connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal

Circumferential lamellae

In long bone it is located just deep to the periostem and just superficial to the endosteum, extend around the entire circumference of the diaphysis.


The organic part of a bone matrix, made up of ground substance and collagen fibers.

Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts)

Inorganic part of the bone, largely calcium phosphate, accounts for the bone's exceptional hardness.

Ossification (osteogenesis)

The process of bone formation

Membrane Bone

When a bone develops from a fibrous membrane, through intramembranous ossification

Endochondral Bone

Bone that is made from hyaline cartilage, through endochondral ossification

Intramembranous Ossification

The formation of cranial bones of the skull and clavicle. STEPS:
1. Ossification centers appear in the fibrous connective tissue membrane
2. Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous membrane and calcifies
3. woven bone and periosteum form
4. Lamellar bone replaces woven bone, just deep to the periosteum, Red Marrow appears.

Endochondral Ossification

The process uses hyaline cartilage formed earlier as models or patterns for bone construction.

Primary Ossification center

The center of the hyaline cartilage shaft where the formation of a long bone typically begins.

proliferation zone, hypertrophic zone, calcification zone, ossification zone

What are the four stages in the growth of long bone at the epiphyseal plate?

Growth hormone, testosterone, estrogen

What hormones regulate bone growth?

Bone Remodeling

In adult skeletons, bone deposit and bone resorption occur both at the surface of the periosteum and the surface of the endosteum.

Bone Resorption

By the use of osteoclasts, that move along the bone surface and break done bone matrix.

Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin

What are the two hormonal controls of bone remodeling?

Hematoma, fibrocartilaginous callus, bony callus, bone remodeling

What are the four major stages in bone repair?


A mass of clotted blood, forms at the fracture site

Comminuted Fracture

When bone fragmets into three or more pieces

Compression Fracture

When bone is crushed

Spiral Fracture

When a ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone

Epiphyseal Fracture

When the epiphysis seperates from the diaphysis along the epipyseal plate

Depressed Fracture

When a broken bone portion is pressed inward

Greenstick Fracture

When bone breaks incompletely. Only one side of the shaft breaks, the other side bends.


A group of bone diseases where bone resorption outpaces bone deposits.

Paget's disease

A bone disease where there is an excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption.


A bone imbalance that encompasses a number of disorders in which the bones are inadequately mineralized.


The children's disease of osteomalacia

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