long single extension of a neuron covered with the myelin sheath to insulate and speed up messages through neurons
(biochemistry) a drug that can combine with a receptor on a cell to produce a physiological reaction
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
brain structure that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and body temperature
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
The lobe at the front of the brain associated with movement, speech, and impulsive behavior.
portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
a neurotransmitter found in the brain, spinal chord, and parts of the PNS, responsible for muscle contraction
neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep,arousal,and mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons
inhibits the firing of neurons in the central nervous system, but excites the heart muscle, intestines and urogenital tract
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
three different retinal receptors one picks up red, one green, one blue. Theory by Helmholtz and Young. All 3 colors make up the base of other colors.