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Nervous System Lecture 1
Terms in this set (71)
The brain is divided into 6 areas
what are they?
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
motor, legs and arms face
social , judgment , executive funtion
what is the vascular supply of the frontal lobe
MCA ( middle cerebral artery) face/arms>legs
Lesions of the frontal lobe
disinhibition-saying inappropriate things
personal and behavioral changes
contralateral motor weakness
what is abulia?
lack of inability to sustain attention and solve complex problems
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
sensory, visuospatial , attention, vision
what is the vascular supply of the parietal lobe?
lesion of parietal lobe
contralateral (field cut)- side of vision is gone
what is the function of temporal lobe?
what is the vascular supply of temporal lobe?
PCA- posterior cerebral artery
lesions of the temporal lobe causes
speech and language problem
and memory loss
what is the function of occipital lobe?
what is the vascular supply to occipital lobe?
what is the effect of lesion on the occipital lobe?
what is the function of the cerebellum?
fine motor movements
what is the vascular supply of the cerebellum
what is the effect of lesion on the cerebellum
what does the brainstem include
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
what is the function of the brainstem?
what is the vascular supply of the brain stem?
a lesion of the brainstem cuases?
decreased level of arousability/coma
what are the central located structures
sneosry and motor relay station
a lesion on the thalmus causes?
based on nuclei affected
what is the function of basal ganglia?
inititation of purposeful movment
supression of unwanted movment
a lesion on the basal ganglia will cause?
difficulties with speech and posture
weakness on the contralateral side
what is the function of the hypothalmus?
neuropophysis and hormones
autonomic and temp regulation
what does the lesion of the hypothalmus cause?
depends on the nuclei
what is the anterior arteries of the brain?
common carotid artery
internal carotid artery
middle cebebral artery
anterior cerebral artery
anterior communicating artery
what is the posterior circulation of the brain?
Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA)
Posterior Communicating Artery (Pcomm)
mental status neuro eval includes?
level of conciousness
Level of conciousness
Alert, Lethargic, Obtunded, Stupor/Semi-Coma, Coma
person, place, time and situation
memory (mental status)
retrograde vs antegrade amnesia
Language assess for ?
receptive and expressive
what is aphasia ?
a disturbance in langague
can be verbal expression, speech comprehension, naming, repetition, writing and reading
difficult poorly articulated speech resulting from interference in the control over the muscles of speech
What are some verbal expression distrubances with aphasia?
Spontanous verbal output
word-finding difficulty , paraphasic errors
what are some comprehension issues associated with aphasia?
failure to undersatand commands
ex. show me 2 fingers
What are sme naming issues of aphasia?
difficulty naming various objects
What is broca Aphasia?
speech is non-fluent, interrupted by many word-finding pauses and usually dysarthic
fluency , naming and repitition are impaired
what is wernicke aphasia?
comphrension is impaired. Language is fluent but generally incomprehnsible/
what is global aphasia?
combined broca and wernickes area. Speech output is nonfluent , and comprehension of language is severly impaired.
what is cranial 3?
what are the characteristics of oculomotor?
deviation of the eye outward and downward
ptosis with a divergent and slightly depressed eye
what is the cause of cranial 3 damage?
what is the 4th nerve?
Lower motor neuron facial nerve paresis
7th cranial nerve
what are the signs of symptoms of someone with bells palsy?
abrupt onset of facial paresis
ear pain, restriction of eye closure, difficulty chewing, drooping corner of mouth
how do you diagnose bells palsy
history and physical
how do you treat bells palsy
steroid should be initiated within 5 days
acyclovir has been seen to be beneficial
motor neurologic assesment is graded out of?
flicker or trace movement at a joint
movement present but cannot be sustained against gravity
movement against gravity but not against applied resistance
movement against some degree of resistance
sensory neuro assements talks aboaut what 4 extremities?
balance neuro assesment
fingers to nose
heel to shin
fine rapid movements
assess for dysmetria, ataxia
What are the types of headaches?
what is the second most common type of headache
Migranes are more common in
what are the triggers for migraines?
what is the cause of migrane?
not fully known
what are the 3 phases of migranes?
what occurs in the prodome phase of a migrane
fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, mood change, food cravingds, neck discomfort, polyuria
last hours to days
may have AURA
how do you diagnose migrane?
repeated headaches lasting 4 hourss to 3 days
what is the most common primary headache?
What are tension headaches exacerbated by?
what are the sings and symptoms of a tension headache?
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