Drexel BIO 101/109 Midterm 2
Terms in this set (107)
According to the biological species concept, species are natural populations of organisms that have the potential to interbreed and are ______ isolated from other such populations.
The difference between microevolution and macroevolution is that:
A. they take place on different time scales.
B. macroevolution occurs with physical structures, whereas microevolution occurs with physiological traits.
C. microevolution involves changes to individuals within a population, whereas macroevolution involves changes to all of the individuals within a population.
D. microevolution has been proven, whereas macroevolution is very speculative.
E. microevolution occurs in prokaryotes, whereas macroevolution takes place among eukaryotes.
they take place on different time scales.
Prokaryotes are classified into ______ domain(s).
All protists are alike in that they all are:
Which of the following groups would be placed nearest the fungi in an evolutionary tree based on DNA sequences?
Which of the following is NOT a prezygotic barrier to interbreeding between different species?
Hybrids between the two species are infertile
Which of the following is not a characteristic of all animals?
A) They are able to move at some point in their life.
B) They get their energy by eating other organisms.
C) They are multicellular.
D) They are sexually reproducing at some point in their life cycle.
E) All of the above are characteristics of all animals.
They are sexually reproducing at some point in their life cycle.
Which of the following are chordates?
D) All of the above are chordates.
E) Only a) and c) are chordates.
All of the above are chordates
Why is the amniotic egg considered a key evolutionary innovation?
A) It prohibits external fertilization, thereby facilitating the evolutionary innovation of internal fertilization.
B) It has an unbreakable shell.
C) It greatly increases the likelihood of survival of the eggs in a terrestrial environment.
D) It enables eggs to float in an aquatic medium.
E) It extends the time of embryonic development.
It greatly increases the likelihood of survival of the eggs in a terrestrial environment.
Which came first, the chicken or the egg?
A) The chicken, because the amniotic egg did not evolve until after the first chicken appeared.
B) The egg, because the amniotic egg evolved well before the first birds.
C) The chicken, because during speciation the adult stage always precedes the juvenile stage.
D) The egg, because the chicken is not a real species.
E) It is impossible to determine, because eggs leave no fossils.
The egg, because the amniotic egg evolved well before the first birds.
Which of the following is not a reptile (or closely related to reptiles)?
The phylum Arthropoda includes all of the following kinds of animals except:
Which of the following traits is unique to arthropods?
A) a ventral nerve cord
B) an exoskeleton
D) a large ratio of brain size to body size
E) wheeled appendages
In cnidarians, cnidocytes are primarily used for:
A) creation of water flow across the body wall.
B) formation of free-living medusas.
C) secretion of digestive enzymes.
D) prey capture and defense.
E) muscular contraction during movement.
prey capture and defense.
Sponges are sessile, meaning that they:
A) reproduce asexually.
B) are parasitic and depend on their host for a constant supply of nutrients.
C) have exoskeletons that they must shed as they grow.
D) live within shells they find on the ocean floor.
E) live attached to a solid structure and do not move around.
live attached to a solid structure and do not move around.
From an evolutionary perspective, the most basic division among all organisms on earth is among:
A. plants, animals, and bacteria.
B. bacteria, archaea, and eukarya.
C. plants, animals, and eukarya.
D. bacteria, animals, and eukarya.
E. bacteria, archaea, and protists.
bacteria, archaea, and eukarya.
Which group of organisms utilizes the largest variety of energy sources?
D. invertebrate animals
E. vertebrate animals
Which of the following statements about antibiotics is incorrect?
A. Penicillin was the first antibiotic isolated from bacteria and widely used to fight bacterial infections.
B. Antibiotics help microbes compete with other microbes.
C. Antibiotic-resistant microbes are selected for in humans who are taking antibiotics.
D. Antibiotics, though effective against viruses, are not effective against bacteria.
E. Antibiotics are used not just in human health care but also in agriculture.
Antibiotics, though effective against viruses, are not effective against bacteria.
Unlike other microbes, archaea are able to thrive:
A. in very extreme (with respect to temperature, salinity, pressure, etc.) environments.
B. in all the same places that bacteria are found.
C. in the human body.
D. in lakes and rivers (i.e., fresh water).
E. in well-aerated soils.
in very extreme (with respect to temperature, salinity, pressure, etc.) environments.
Many biologists do not consider viruses to be alive. Which of the following characteristics of viruses leads to this conclusion?
A. Viruses lack a metabolic system.
B. Viruses do not respond to external stimuli.
C. Viruses are unable to reproduce on their own.
D. All of the above are correct.
E. Only a) and c) are correct.
Only a) and c) are correct.
The genetic information in all viruses is:
D. polymerase enzymes.
E. DNA or RNA.
DNA or RNA.
Viruses are able to infect:
E. All of the above.
All of the above.
In a set of classic experiments performed in the early
1950s, Urey and Miller subjected an experimental system
composed of H2, CH4 (methane), and NH3 (ammonia) to
electrical sparks. A few days later, they found ______ in
A) amino acids
What kind of molecule is thought to have been the first
The classification rank that includes genera but not
Populations of Larus gulls around the North Pole show an
unusual pattern of reproductive isolation: each population
is able to interbreed with its neighboring populations, but
populations separated by larger geographic distances are
not able to interbreed. Larus gulls are an example of a(n)
In animals, it is believed that the most common mode of
a) arises only when there is an error in meiosis resulting
in diploid gametes instead of haploid gametes.
b) is a common method of sympatric speciation
c) arises when allopatric speciation causes plants
to have fewer sets of chromosomes than their
d) is an increased number of sets of chromosomes.
e) always results in allopatric speciation.
is an increased number of sets of chromosomes.
In the plant kingdom, all of the species are descended
from a single common ancestor. In terms of phylogeny,
what type of tree of life is this?
Phylogenetic trees should be viewed as:
a) true genealogical relationships of species.
b) the result of vertical, but never horizontal,
c) intellectual exercises, not to be interpreted
d) representations of allopatric speciation
e) hypotheses regarding evolutionary
relationships of groups of organisms.
hypotheses regarding evolutionary
relationships of groups of organisms.
The idea of punctuated equilibrium challenges which
component of Darwin's theory of evolution?
a) steady change
c) species stasis
d) Both a) and b) are correct.
e) None of the above is correct.
Both a) and b) are correct.
Which of the following scenarios would best facilitate
a) A population of birds native to an island
archipelago is forced to relocate to the
mainland by a storm.
b) A population of cheetahs goes through an
event in which all genetic diversity in the
population is wiped out.
c) Darker-colored moths have a selective
advantage over lighter-colored moths due to
industrial soot on trees.
d) A population of birds becomes stranded on
an island archipelago.
e) All of the above would facilitate adaptive
A population of birds becomes stranded on
an island archipelago.
The mass extinction that occurred on earth 65 million years
ago was immediately followed by:
a) the rise of archaea.
b) the emergence of the first nonphotosynthetic
c) the rise of the reptiles, including the
d) an increase in atmospheric oxygen levels.
e) the rapid divergence and radiation of
the rapid divergence and radiation of
Which of the following domains share the most recent
a) archaea and eukarya
b) bacteria and eukarya
c) archaea and bacteria
d) None of the above; all three domains evolved
from different ancestors.
e) None of the above; all three domains are
equally related to each other.
archaea and eukarya
The lineage that first separated from the common ancestor
of all animals, and retains many of those primitive features
to this day, includes which of the following modern
a) the grasshopper
b) the jellyfish
c) the sponge
d) the earthworm
e) the sea turtle
Which of the following extant species is the most
a) the house mouse (Mus domesticus)
b) the housefly (Musca domestica)
c) the Western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)
d) Irukandji, the toxic jellyfish (Carukia barnesi )
e) All of the above species are equally successful
because they are not extinct.
All of the above species are equally successful
because they are not extinct.
The mollusk's mantle is used primarily for:
b) gas exchange.
c) producing the shell.
producing the shell
Which of the following insect groups has the most species
currently named by scientists?
a) bees, wasps, and ants
c) grasshoppers and crickets
e) butterflies and moths
Which is the only animal phylum to have more than a million
The two most important evolutionary innovations in
vertebrates, which resulted in their eventual domination
among the large animals, were:
a) air-breathing lungs and a more efficient
b) opposable thumbs.
c) jaws and amniotic eggs.
d) the ability to walk or fly.
e) air-breathing lungs and endothermy
jaws and amniotic eggs.
Which of these animals is a tetrapod that does not produce
Marsupials and which of the following groups combine
to make a monophyletic group?
e) placental mammals
According to the fossil record, the first humans appeared
approximately ______ years ago.
a) 6 million
c) 190 million
e) 1 million
In the human body:
a) there are more microbial cells than human cells.
b) archaea can survive, but bacteria are killed by
the immune system.
c) bacterial cells can survive only inside the
d) the diversity of bacterial cells living in the
mouth is exceeded by the diversity living on
e) the bacterial cells are larger than the eukaryotic
there are more microbial cells than human cells
Which of the following statements about prokaryotes
a) Prokaryotes contain ribosomes.
b) Some prokaryotes can conduct photosynthesis.
c) Prokaryotes have circular pieces of DNA within
d) Prokaryotes appeared on earth prior to
e) Prokaryotes contain cytoplasm.
Prokaryotes have circular pieces of DNA within
"Establishing a phylogeny for bacteria is more difficult
than establishing a phylogeny for plants or animals."
This statement is:
a) correct, because of the quick generation time
b) incorrect, because lateral gene transfer makes
creating a phylogeny simpler.
c) incorrect, because the metabolic diversity of
bacteria makes classification impossible.
d) correct, because it is difficult to obtain enough
morphological data from bacteria.
e) correct, because bacteria can engage in lateral
correct, because bacteria can engage in lateral
A population of Escherichia coli can double every
______ in an ideal laboratory culture.
a) 20 seconds
b) 2 minutes
c) 2 days
d) 20 minutes
e) 2 hours
Plasmids containing genes for antibiotic resistance
can be exchanged between bacterial cells in a culture
b) artificial exchange.
a) is produced in viruses and bacteria.
b) is denatured at temperatures above the
normal human body temperature.
c) is useful in catalyzing the polymerase chain
d) can break down the sludge in oil refinery
e) can reduce the mineral deposits from rusting
can reduce the mineral deposits from rusting
Which of the following is not a protist?
b) slime mold
c) brown alga
e) All of the above are protists
All of the above are protists
Which of the following statements about Plasmodium
a) It causes sickle-cell anemia.
b) Because it changes its surface proteins
frequently, it is largely invisible to the
c) It is transmitted by Paramecium.
d) It confers resistance to malaria.
e) It is most common in North America.
Because it changes its surface proteins
frequently, it is largely invisible to the
Which of the following statements about HIV is
a) It is a virus.
b) It attacks red blood cells.
c) It mutates frequently.
d) It is derived from a simian immunodeficiency
e) It contains RNA but not DNA.
It attacks red blood cells.
Which animal below is not a mollusc?
Cnidarians are radially symmetrical. What other type of animal is radially symmetrical?
D) Some Molluscs
E) 3 and 4
3 and 4
All of the statements below about arthropods are true except:
A) They are invertebrates
B) All have a larval stage of development
C) Metamorphosis has limited the diversification of arthropods
D) All have an exoskeleton
Metamorphosis has limited the diversification of arthropods
Viral DNA is replicated by
using the host's metabolic machinery and energy
Brown algae are:
eukaryotic and photosynthetic
The person in this figure:
Contains more microbial cells than human cells
Which of the following is NOT one of the kingdoms included within the Eukarya domain?
Spherical bacteria are known as:
Antibiotics have no effect on
In the US, about 25 million pounds of antibiotics, more than eight times as much as used in human medicine, are used in:
Prokaryotic cells may contain all the following EXCEPT
a membrane-bound nucleus
_______ is added to milk to make yogurt
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that:
What is the most effective medical approach to treating viral infections?
A bacteriophage is
a virus that infects bacteria
Biological species concept:
Defines a species as any group of actually or potentially interbreeding species that produce viable offspring
In one sense, microevolution is a _____________ and macroevolution is the ____________
Classification is an important aspect of understanding and describing the many life forms on earth. In their classification scheme, biologists use different "ranks" that are more or less inclusive. Which of the following correctly lists these ranks from most to least include?
domain, phylum, family, genus, species
Speciation with geographic isolation is called
A population of organisms that breaks away and becomes different from the original population through isolation and separate evolution might eventually become a separate:
The basic structure of a virus consists of
genetic info in the form of DNA or RNA enclosed within a protein coat
Prokaryotes reproduce by ____________, which creates _____________ exact daughter cell clones of the original parent cell
All of the living organisms that we can see with the naked eye are:
In the domain Eukarya
It is important to take all antibiotics prescribed to you by your physician, even after your symptoms clear up?
Yes, even after your symptoms clear up there are still harmful bacteria in your system that are most resistant to the antibiotic. It is important to reduce their population size and expose them to competition from other types of bacteria.
The organism represented by this figure is:
Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about microbes?
Microbes are not genetically diverse
The protein coat of a virus is called
The _______ on the surface of a virus determines which host species the virus can infect and which tissues the host species can enter
_______ is a method of treating infections by deliberately introducing benign bacteria in numbers large enough to swamp the harmful bacteria
You are eating in a French restaurant and read that snails are on the menu. Being a knowledgeable Biologist, you kindly inform the other at the table that this restaurant is serving the ______ of mollusks
Many people are initially repulsed by leeches. But after some study, you can find that you actually begin to feel some affection for them. And they, in turn, become attached to you. Leeches are in the Phylum:
Most species of animals are:
B) Radially Symmertical
D) Marine Dwelling
Echinoderm larvae are _________, while echinoderm adults are ________
A) Bilaterally symmetrical; Radially symmetrical
B) Radially Symmetrical; bilaterally symmetrical
C) gastropods; bivalves
D) aquatic; terrestrial
E) segmented; unsegmented
bilaterally symmetrical; radially symmetrical
this figure represents a phylogenetic tree of the
Sharks have _________ skeletons, while salmon have _________ skeletons
Two important features that distinguish mammals from any other type of animal are:
A) Scales and mammary glands
B) Placentas and hair
C) Hair and mammary glands
D) Four legs and hair
E) Placentas and mammary glands
Hair and mammary glands
Which of the following groups is solely made up of carnivores?
Lampreys and hagfishes:
Are the only extinct jaw-less vertebrates
Which of the following is NOT a member of the segmented worms, phylum Annelida?
The Phylum Arthropoda includes all of the following kinds of animals except:
Which of the following is NOT a Cnidarian?
A) Man O' War
B) Sea Urchins
E) Sea Anemones
How do resident bacteria living on your body inhibit infection by pathogenic bacteria?
Resident bacteria compete for space and nutrient with the pathogen.
All of the following below are examples of allopatric speciation except:
A) Salamanders that have migrated via two different routes display different color patterns.
B) There are 14 different species of finch on the Galapagos Islands vs. one species on South America.
C) Two species of benthic fish are found in a volcanic crater that is known to have only been colonized by one species on benthic fish about 10,000 years ago
D) Species of lobster on the east side of the isthmus of Panama are different from those on the west side.
Two species of benthic fish are found in a volcanic crater that is known to have only been colonized by one species on benthic fish about 10,000 years ago
What is conjugation?
Conjugation is the process by which one bacterium transfers a copy of some of its genetic information to another bacterium—even when the two bacteria are different species
What is a peptidoglycan?
thick layer of a glycoprotein
What is an endotherm?
use the heat produced by cellular respiration
to raise their body temperature above air temperature
Which of the following short descriptions best describes the body plan of modern sponges?
A) A complete gut with one opening serving as both mouth and anus
B) A mouth connected to a blind sac in which digestion occurs
C) A complete gut with an anterior around a water canal system
D) An aggregation of cells in a random arrangement
A complete gut with an anterior around a water canal system
Which of these animals does NOT belong in class Arachnida?
All of the living organisms that we can see with the naked eye are?
A) In the kingdom Eukarya
B) In the domain Eukarya
C) In the domain Archaea
D) In the kingdom Animalia
E) In the kingdom Plantae
In the domain Eukarya
Classification is an important aspect of understanding and describing the many life forms on Earth. In their classification scheme, biologists use different "ranks" that are more or less inclusive. Which if the following correctly lists these ranks from most to least inclusive?
Domain, phylum, family, genus, species
A population of organisms that breaks away and becomes different from the original population through isolation and separate evolution might eventually become a separate?
The phylum Platyhelminthes are more commonly known as:
d) ribbon worms
Reptiles show numerous adaptions for a completely terrestrial life cycle. One adaption that first occurred in the reptiles includes:
the amniotic egg
In captivity, tigers and lions have been known to interbreed and produce hybrids, known as ligers. Why does this NOT make them the same species, according to the biological species concept?
Captivity is not a natural condition