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Biochem Review Questions

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Which one of the following is a hydrocarbon?
C3H8
Which of the following is an example of an organic molecule?
CH4
Which element is most particularly associated with organic chemistry?
Carbon
Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of the molecules used by living organisms because _____.
Each carbon atom can form up to four covalent bonds with a wide variety of bond angles
What is the process by which cells link monomers together to form polymers?
dehydration synthesis
In a hydrolysis reaction, _____. In this process, water is _____.
A polymer breaks up to form monomers ... consumed
Which of these is an amino group?
-NH2
choose the pair of terms that completes this sentence: Hydroxyl group is to ____ as ____ is to amino group.
alcohol ... amino
Ethanol, propanol, and methanol are three simple alcohols. They can be grouped together because they _____. (
all share the same functional group: a hydroxyl
. The four main categories of macromolecules in a cell are _____.
a. proteins, DNA, RNA, and steroids
b. monosaccharides, lipids, polysaccharides, and proteins
c. proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids
d. nucleic acids, carbohydrates, monosaccharides, and proteins
e. RNA, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Which one of the following molecules is a carbohydrate?
C50H100O50
Sugars are mainly used by our bodies _____.
As fuel
One characteristic shared by sucrose and maltose is _____.
they are disaccharides
Cellulose is a _____ made of many _____.
polymer ... glucose molecules
Generally, animals cannot digest the linkages between the glucose molecules in cellulose. How then do cattle get enough nutrients from eating grass?
Microorganisms in their digestive tracts hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose.
In what polysaccharide form do plants store sugar to be available later for energy?
starch
The complex carbohydrate that you are most likely to have eaten recently is _____.
starch
A polysaccharide that we use for storing energy in our muscles and livers is _____.
glycogen
Which one of the following is not a function of carbohydrates (as a class)?
enzymatic activity
Which one of the following components of a tossed salad will pass through the human digestive tract with the least digestion?
cellulose (in the lettuce)
A glucose molecule is to starch as _____.
a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid
Lipids differ from other large biological molecules in that they _____.
are not truly polymers
Which is the correct term for compounds that do not mix with water?
hydrophobic
Nutritionally, saturated triglycerides are considered less healthful than unsaturated. What is one major difference between them?
Saturated triglycerides have more hydrogens than unsaturated triglycerides.
A fatty acid containing at least two double bonds is called _____. (
unsaturated
Manufacturers make vegetable oils solid or semisolid by _____. (
adding hydrogens
Hydrogenated vegetable oils are more like animal fats than are other plant oils. Because they _____ than other plant oils, they can contribute to cardiovascular disease.
contain fewer double bonds
cholesterol belongs to which class of molecules?
lipids
Some athletes use anabolic steroids to build their body mass. Why is this considered a problematic practice? )
All of the choices are correct.
Protein molecules are polymers of _____.
amino acid molecules
What do nucleic acids and proteins have in common?
They are large polymers.
Which of these is diagnostic of all amino acids?
-NH2
To what does the term "polypeptide" specifically refer?
none of the above
A peptide bond binds _____.
amino acids together in a protein
Which of the following would probably not be affected when a protein is denatured?
primary structure
Enzyme molecules require a specific shape to perform their catalytic function. Which of the following might alter the protein shape?
all of the above
The "primary structure" of a protein refers to _____.
the number and sequence of amino acids
38. The alpha helix and pleated sheet represent which level of protein structure?
secondary structure
The overall three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide is called the _____. (
tertiary structure
How does a protein's quaternary structure differ from other levels of protein structure?
It involves two or more polypeptide chains.
Based on the way nitrogen bases pair, you would expect the percentage of _____ to be equal to the percentage of _____.
a. A ... T
...
CO2
...
C6H1206
...
H2CO3
...
CC12F2
...
Ne
...
O2
...
NaCl
...
H20
...
Sulfur
...
Nitrogen
...
Potassium
...
Oxygen
...
hydrolysis
...
monomerization
...
protein formation
...
coiling
...
a monomer breaks up to form polymers...produced
...
monomers are assembled to produce a polymer..consumed
...
Monomers are assembled to produce a polymer...produced
...
a polymer breaks up to form monomers...produced