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bio2 lab practical 2: flowers

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peduncle
flower stalk
receptacle
the part of the flower stalk that bears the floral organs; located at the base of the flower
sepals
the lowermost or outermost whorls of structure, which are usually leaflike and protect the developing flower; the sepals collectively constitute the Calyx
petals
whorls of structures located inside and usually above the sepals; may be large and pigmented(in insect=pollinated flowers) or inconspicuous(in wind-pollinated plants). the petals collectively
the corolla.
androecium
the male portion of the plant that rises above and inside the petals; consists of stamens, filament and anther, inside the anthers are pollen gains.
gynoecium
the female portion of the plant that rises above and inside the androecium; consists of one or more carpels, ovary, style, stigma ovary contains ovules that contain the megagametophyte/embryo sac and contains female gamest
radially symmetrical
regular flowers, tulips, radiate from the center of the flower.
bilaterally symmetrical
irregular flowers, snapdragons, parts are different
sporphyte
produces haploid spores by meiosis then develops into the gametophyte by mitosis and cellular differentiation.
sporogenesis
production of spores in the sporphyte by meiosis
gametogenesis
production of gametes by gametophytes
microsporogenesis
production of microspores within microsporangia of a flower's anthers via meiosis of microspore mother cells (microsporocytes)
pollen grains
microgametopyhtes
tube nucleus
control growth of the pollen tube
generative nucleus
replicate to produce two sperm nuclei
Megasporogenesis
production of megaspores; it occurs in the sporangia of the flower ovary by meiosis of megaspore mother cells(megasporocyte)
megagametogenesis
megaspores develop into megagametopyets called ovule and have 2 integuments coverings
double fertilization
one sperm nucleus fuses with teh egg to form the diploid (2n) zygoate, and the other sperm fuses with the two polar nuclei to form a triploid (3n) nucleus. In angiosperms.
seed
mature ovule that includes a seed coat, a food supply, and an embryo. ex)Capsella (a dicot)
cotyledons
stored nutrients of embryo's absorbed endosperm
proembryo stage
zygote divides and left with basal cell, suspensor, and 2 celled proembryo.
suspensor
column of cells that pushes the embryo into the endosperm.
globular stage
radially symmetrical
heart-shaped stage
bilateral symmetry of two cotyledons. root and shoot meristem appear.
torpedo stage
cotyledons and root axis elongate . procambial tissue appears to develop into vascular tissue later.
mature embryo
has large bent cotyledons on sides of the stem apical meristem. radicle forms roots later, bypocotyl is between apical and radicle.
micropyle
bean. small opening on the surface of the seed through which the pollen tube grew.
hilum
bean. an adjacent, elliptical area at which the ovule was attached to the ovary.
cotyledon
bean. food for the embryo
scutellum
corn. cotyledon; this structure helps absorb the endosperm.
coleoptile
corn. sheath enclosing shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia of grass embryos
coleorhiza
corn. sheath enclosing embryonic root of grass embryo
fruit
mature, ripened ovary plus any associated tissue.
pericarp
outer wall of fruit composed of an exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp
pea
legume fruit
tomato
berry fruit
strawberry
aggregate fruit
apple
prome fruit
strobili
cones of gymnopserm
angyosperm
flowering
gymnosperms
seeds plants like ferns, but unlike ferns they are heterosporous; produce two types of spores:mega and microspores. cycadophyta, ginkgophyta, coniferophyta, and gnoteophyta.
pine
sporphyte stage dominates