POLI 2500 - Tulane - Test 1 - Christina Kiel

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Terms in this set (35)
Hegemonic StabilityTheory that one state is able to create stability in the international system i.e. Pax Britanica.Non-State ActorsGroups other than nation-states that attempt to play a role in the international system. Terrorist groups are one type of non-state actor. Non governmental aid groups are another.NGO'sNon-governmental organizations; groups not affiliated with any government. e.g. Doctors Without Borders, Al Qaida.Multinational Corporationscompanies that operate across national boundaries: also called transitional corporationsInstitutionsA set of rules, known and shared by the community, that structure political interactions in particular way. e.g. IAEA (International Atomic energy Agency)Interdependencea relationship between countries in which they rely on one another for resources, goods, or services. Liberalism believes that this means that these countries will not go to war.Democratic PeaceThe proposition, strongly supported by empirical evidence, that democracies almost never fight wars against each other (although they do fight against authoritarian states).NationalismThe doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goalsPower Transition TheoryThe contention that war is likely when a dominant great power is threatened by the rapid growth of a rival's capabilities, which reduces the difference in their relative powerCapitalismAn economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.ImperialismA policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.Military Industrial ComplexNetwork of governmental agencies, industrial corporations, and research institutes, working together to supply a nation's military forces. Encompasses a variety of constituencies, each of which has an interest in military spending.Level of Analysis1) Individual 2) State 3) International System (4) substate)RealismTheoretical framework founded on the principle of dominance. It is the school of thought that explains IR in terms of power. The exercise of power by states toward each other is sometimes called realpolitik, or just power politics. Modern realism founded by Hans Morgenthau.Assumptions of realism1) Anarchy 2) States are central actors 3) States are unitary actors 4) States are rational actors 5) Politics is amoral 6) Distribution of power is the central force in international politicsAssumptions of Offensive RealismJohn Mearsheimer: 1) Great powers are the main actors in world politics and the international system is anarchical 2) All states possess some offensive military capability 3) States can never be certain of the intentions of other states 4) States have survival as their primary goal 5) States are rational actors, capable of coming up with sound strategies that maximize their prospects for survivalLiberalismLiberalism believes cooperation and order are possible in international affairs. Liberal theories draw on reciprocity (give and take, cooperation, incentives, etc.) or identity (changing outlook, looking at states not as adversaries) principles. They are generally more optimist about the prospects of peace. Shares assumption of rationality.Liberal InstitutionalismAnarchy does not necessarily lead to conflict; cooperation is possible and almost always a good things. Institutions based upon shared norms. Retains basic assumption of balance of power theory. Agreements can partially solve security dilemma.Complex interdependence theoryStates are not the only important actors; there are a variety (pluralism). Actors have diverse interests in international politics (no clear hierarchy). Military force is often not a viable option and much of international relations has little to do with military security. Focuses on substate actors: individuals, NGOs, organizations within government.Democratic peace theoryStates are not all essentially the same (not unitary); liberal democratic states can solve conflicts without war.The Dyadic Model of Democratic Peace TheoryDemocracies are just as warlike as autocracies but democracies do not fight each other. Support: Structural (used to compromise), Normative (shared norms lead to peace), Institutional (must think about future)Economic StructuralismResponse to liberalism. Focuses above all on economics as a political motivation and source of power. Explores the distribution of wealth. Believes political power is built upon economic power. Fundamental actor is classes. People have more in common with members of the same class in other countries than members of another class in their country. Workers do not realize this because powerful bourgeoisie do not want them to and therefore exploit them. Proletariat deceived by religion, nationalism. The wealthy get wealthier and the poor are left behind. Poverty and unemployment are in the interest of employers: the more desperate the worker is, the lower the wages they will work for. Desire for economic expansion drives international politics. Powerful states and wealthy capitalists use what power they have to gain even more, by forcing weaker actors into the parts of the production process that yield relatively little reward and saving the lucrative parts for themselves.Vladamir Lenin on Capitalism and WarLenin asserted that the pursuit of access to economic markets and sources of cheap labor and raw materials will inevitably lead the great powers to clash with one another. Great power can expand only at each other's expense, so they were driven to wage war with each other.ConstructivismApproach that focuses on the nature of interests, norms (shared expectation of behavior), identity, and social interaction, and how their changes help shape the content of state interests. Views anarchy, interests, and identities as constructs that can be changed through interaction. Focuses on ideas rather than materials, purpose rather than power. Recognition of sovereignty is a fairly recent (and still changing) construct. Inquire into the effects and causes of norms (shared rules or principles that influence behavior).Foreign policyStrategies that governments may take to relate with other governments. Influenced by Executive, Legislature, Judicial, interest groups, public opinion.