Intro to Bio: Ch.1

Biology, the Study of Life
STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

4 steps of the scientific method
1) Making observations
2) Formulating a hypothesis
3) performing experiments and making observations.
4) Coming to a conclusion.
observation
The step in the scientific method where data is collected before a conclusion is drawn.
- MUST BE REPEATABLE!
inductive reasoning
Occurs whenever a person uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole (like a "best guess").
hypothesis
Supposition that is formulated after making an observation; it can be tested by obtaining more data, usually through continued experimentation.
(Knowledge and past experiences influence this)
experiment
A series of procedures to test a hypothesis.
design
The manner in which a scientist intends to conduct an experiment.
experimental variable
The variable in an experiment that is deliberately changed.
test groups
Groups that are exposed to the experimental variable.
control group
Group that is not exposed to the experimental variable.
model
A representation of an actual object.
- Whenever it is impossible to study the actual phenomenon, this remains a hypothesis in need of testing.
data
The results of an experiment or further observations.
conclusion
A statement following an experiment, as to whether the results support the hypothesis.
scientific theories
Accepted explanations (concepts), for how the world works.
(The ultimate goal of science is to understand the natural world under these terms)
5 basic theories of biology
1). Cell--All organisms are composed of cells, and new cells come only from preexisting cells.
2). Gene--All organisms contain coded information that dictates their form, function, and behavior.
3). Homeostasis--All organisms have an internal environment that must stay relatively constant within a range protective of life.
4). Ecosystem--All organisms are members of populations that interact with each other and with the physical environment within a particular locale.
5). Evolution--All organisms have a common ancestor, but each is adapted to a particular way of life.
legume
A plant that has root nodules where bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to form that plants, such as winter wheat, can use.
11 levels of biological organization
Atom>molecule>cell>tissue>organ>organ system>organism>population>community>ecosystem>biosphere.
atom
The smallest unit of an element composed of subatomic particles.
- Combine with two or more of themselves to form molecules.
molecules
Union of two or more atoms of the same or different elements.
cell
The structural or functional unit of all living things.
tissue
A group of cells with a common structure and function.
organ
Composed of tissues functioning together for a specific task.
organ system
Composed of several organs working together.
organism
An individual. Complex individuals contain organ systems.
population
Organisms of the same species in a particular area.
community
Interacting populations in a particular area.
ecosystem
A community plus the physical environment.
bioshpere
Regions of the Earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere, inhabited y living organisms.
energy
The capacity to do work.
metabolism
Encompasses all the chemical reactions that occur in the cell. Requires energy to reproduce, undergo protein synthesis, convert ATP.
photosynthesis
A process in plants, which transforms solar energy into the chemical energy of organic nutrients.
gene
Units of heredity, that are passed down from parents to offspring.
gene theory
Genes are hereditary units composed of DNA. Control the structure and function of cells and organisms by coding for proteins.
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid)
Blue print of life. Composed of genes, base pairs and allows for mutations to occur.
mutations
Permanent genetic changes.
proteins
Cellular molecules that determine what the cell and the organism are like.
homeostasis
A state of biological balance.
theory of homeostasis
Cells and organisms have an internal environment and that living systems regulate this environment so that it stays fairly constant.

- Organisms have a complex feedback and control mechanism that do not require conscious thought to control.
1)Enzymes
2)Hormones
3)Blood pressure
4)Chemoreceptors
5)Osmoreceptors
6)Stretch receptors

(e.i.: response to Stimuli)
theory of ecosystems
Organisms form units in which they interact with the biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) components of the environment.

1) Biosphere: Divided into multiple ecosystems. Zones of air, land, water on the surface of the Earth which living organisms are found.
The two most biologically diverse ecosystems—tropical rain forests and coral reefs—occur where solar energy is most abundant.
2) Ecosystems: Biological community together with the associated abiotic environment; characterized by energy flow and chemical cycling.
theory of evolution
Says that organisms have shared characteristics because of common descent.
1) Evolution: Explains the unity and diversity of life.
evolutionary tree
Shows how a group of organisms have descended from a few and even possibly a single common ancestor over time.
3 domains
1)Domain Bacteria: Unicellular prokaryotes. Bacteria, Primitive, simple.

2)Domain Archaea: Unicellular prokaryotes. Extremophiles, able to live in harsh conditions. Methanogens, Halophiles, Thermoacidophiles

3)Domain Eukarya: Membrane-enclosed nucleus found in eukarytoes. You are a eukaryote! So are plants, protists, fungi and other animals. Domain Eukarya contains four major groups of organisms:
-Protists
-Plants
-Fungi
-Animals
8 levels of classification
Domain<kingdom<phylum<class<order<family<genus<specis
protists
(kingdom Protista) Unicellular to multicellular organisms with various modes of nutrition.
plants
(kingdom Plantae) Multicellular, photosynthetic organisms.
fungi
(kingdom Fungi) Familiar molds and mushrooms that, along with bacteria, help decompose dead organisms.
animals
(kingdom Animalia) Multicellular organisms that must ingest and process their food.
specific epithet
2 name system. First name is capitalized and is the genus. Second name is a specific epithet and it not capitalized.
- Ex: Common name mistletoe, scientific name is: Phoradendron tomentosum
adaption
An organisms modification in structure, function, or behavior suitable to the environment.
- Charles Darwin concluded that natural selection makes this possible.
- The theory of evolution states that natural selection brings this to the environment.