WGU C182 Objective Assessment

First users were the engineers who built and programmed computers, then employees who had received specialized training were users, and now today, anyone and everyone can be a user.
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Terms in this set (370)
Can take on DIFFERENT FORMS depending on the complexity of the application; in certain instances, it is AN ACTUAL OBJECT that is an ACTUAL IMPLEMENTATION of the applicationTHE MODELCreates a subset of the data by reducing the data from multiple dimensions to one dimensionSlicing DataThe technology used in creating, maintaining, and making information accessible.Information TechnologyIn charge of all aspects of the COMPUTER NETWORKSNetwork AdministratorFocuses on the design, development, and support of DATABASE MANAGEMENT systems (DBMSs).Database AdministratorInstalls, configures, maintains, secures, and troubleshoots web seversWeb AdministratorProcessed data.InformationINFORMATION THAT HAS BEEN PUT TO USE information placed into a context. Refined information such that the user of the knowledge is able to call forth only relevant portions of information when needed.Knowledge in DIKWProvides a social setting to knowledge; AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE ((( WHY ))) Can only come by having BOTH KNOWLEDGE and EXPERIENCEWISDOMThe INPUT Processing, OUTPUT, STORAGE CycleI.P.O.S.Raw data is organized or structured for usefulness.PROCESSED DATAInformation is output so user can see results.OUTPUT DATAProcessed information is stored for permanent record.STORAGEA collection of components that work together to meet the needs of the user; typically : CATEGORIZED AS EITHER HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, NETWORKS AND USERSCOMPUTER SYSTEMPhysical components of a computer system which include the system unit and its components and peripheral devices; TANGIBLE ASPECTS OF THE COMPUTERHARDWAREA collection of computers and resources CONNECTED by various media so that they can COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER.NETWORKSystems Software and Applications SoftwareSOFTWARE CATEGORIESRULES provided by WHICH NETWORKS communicate with each otherIP PROTOCOLSTORES the programs BEING EXECUTED and the data they are using.COMPUTER MEMORYControls THE SPEED at which instructions are processed.SYSTEM CLOCKStands for Random Access Memory. It temporarily stores data before it is processed and sent to your screen or printer. IT IS VOLATILE (means data or information stored disappears when the computer is turned off or loses power).RAMTransistor components, magnetic core memory, smaller size, easier to program, disk drives and drums, called mainframe computers2nd Generation of ComputersSilicon chips (known as ICs - integrated circuits), reduced cost, called mini computers, networks introduced via dumb terminals3rd Generation of ComputersWritten for a specific machine by the engineers who built and ran the computers; no need for OS since only one program could run at a timeLow-level LanguageEasier than machine but still required detailed, precise LOW LEVEL instructionsAssembly LanguageFunction is to TRANSLATE ONE LANGUAGE TO ANOTHER; take source code and convert it to another form; source code by itself cannot be read by a computerLanguage Translator ProgramsProgrammer is limited to high level control constructs such as while loops, for loops, and if/else statements and not allowed to use primitive GOTO statementsStructured ProgrammingA type of programming language for which most of its implementations EXECUTES INSTRUCTIONS DIRECTLY AND FREELY, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.Interpreted Language (Code)Small programs that place Linux commands or DOS batch files into a fileShell ScriptingThe computer that the user is using; physically present withLocal ComputerConnects computers to each other with NO REAL UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT IS BEING TRANSFERRED Used for private networks with local computers.Network HubLike a hub, but this will only send data that is INTENDED FOR SPECIFIC COMPUTERNetwork SwitchCan be connected to hub, switch, or router; many routers now also act as a wireless access point; sends out a wireless signal so computers on the network can connect without a cableWireless Access PointContains one or more servers; client is a computer that will request information from another computer; server is a computer that takes requests and responds with the requested information; the software used facilitates communication with remote serversClient-server NetworkStores data files (web pages) and programs (scripts). Responds from anywhere on the Internet.Web ServerMonitors print jobsPrint ServerLike web server or file server in that REQUEST ARE FILES and RESPONDED ARE THE FILES data delivered between client and server.FTP ServerDevices connected along a SINGLE CABLE Size of network is restrictedBus NetworkEach device is connected to a CENTRAL DEVICE such as a hub or switch.Star NetworkEach device is connected DIRECTLY TO ITS NEIGHBOR and messages are forwarded from device to device until the proper destination is reached.Ring NetworkEvery device is connected directly to every other device in the network.Mesh NetworkIdentifies the server on which the web page can be foundDomain NameAlways ends with a period and a THREE or TWO LETTER EXTENSION which signifies the TYPE of organization or country associated with the pageTLD (Top Level Domain) Name Exam: www.yourname.com .edu .net . gov .orgIndicates the name of the file you are accessing, or the location of the document on the serverResource/ Filename IDConfidentiality, Integrity, AvailabilityCIA1st - Must include a component that ensures the accuracy of the collected data 2nd - Must be entered into the system accurately 3rd - Data modification must be trackedData Integrity Efforts1. Identify the organization's information assets 2. Identify vulnerabilities of each asset 3. Determine threats 4. Prioritizing risks 5. Develop and enact policies that will reduce threatsRisk Management & Strategic Risk AnalysisAn attacker issues a SQL command to a web server as part of the URL or as input to a form on a company's website; web server might pass the command onto the database which then allows potentially anything to be done to the databaseSQL InjectionPlacing malicious code into the buffer so that it can be executed once stored in memory; oldest and most well known software exploit; software engineers can protect against this when writing codeBuffer OverflowInforms companies of potential problems with software HACK ATTACKS so companies can fix the problems.White Hat HackerIndividuals with MALICIOUS INTENT WHO VIOLATE SECURITY in order to commit crimes or acts of terrorismBlack Hat HackerEngage in BOTH WHITE and BLACK hat types of hacking activitiesGrey Hat HackerType of virus that completely replaces an existing application and takes the name of the taken over fileTrojan HorseAttempts to identify if a file contains a virus or some form of malwareAnti-virus SoftwareEnsures proper storage of data by providing a means so that data is available even when storage devices are damaged or offlineData RedundancyUses the same key for performing the encryption and decryptionSymmetric Key EncryptionEnsures that the user gains access only to the resources that the user should be able to accessRole-based Access Control1. Cost savings benefits 2. Increased efficiency and productivity 3. Increased facilitation of communicationComputer Network AdvantagesConsists of programs that END USERS RUN to accomplish tasksApplication SoftwareConsists of programs that MAKE UP THE OS software that directly supports the computer system itselfSystem SoftwareWorks with hardware to provide a NETWORK SERVICEServer SoftwareA LAN that uses the Internet ProtocolIntranetCore components of the OS that is loaded when the computer is first booted.KernelAn interface for the user, often personalized for that given user, that provides access to the kernel.ShellAdministration and SupportIT Professional RolesMaintains all aspects of the system including hardware, software, and programming.System AdministratorInstalls, configures, and administers firewall security to protect systems and proactively work to stop intrusions.Security AdministratorHelp desk and training.Support IT ProfessionalsDefines the transition of data to information from knowledge to wisdom. (Data Information Knowledge Wisdom)DIKW HierarchyThe input directly received by the user (or computer). It is generally not usable until it has been converted into a relevant form.Data in DIKWHaving been inferred from data; one or more processes have been applied to the data to transform it into a more useful form.Information in DIKWA collection of data and information used to support the management of an organization. Also refers to the technical components and human resources that enable the assembly, storage, and processing of data and the delivery of information. This has existed for a lot longer than computers.Information SystemsRELEVANCE - the data being used must apply directly to the decision being made TIMELY - data must be efficient and must be provided in a timely manner THOROUGH - the data must be complete ACCURATE - data should be captured only once, where possible and should be captured as close to the point of activity as possible. RELIABLE - data should reflect stable and consistent data collection processes across collections points and over timeCharacteristics of Quality DataRaw data is entered BY THE USERInputCOMPUTER PROGRAMS that tell the computer what to do--how to execute commands and process informationSoftwareTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Most commonly used protocol; is required of all computers that communicate over the Internet.TCP/IPA collection of protocols. TCP/IP is an example.Protocol StackCPU, Memory and Storage, Peripheral DevicesComponents of a ComputerExecutes programs' instructions and commands various components in the computer. Referred to as the "chip".CPUAll peripheral devices where long term storage devices are used.i/o SubsystemPermits information to move between each component; electrical channels that enable communication among the electronic componentsSystem BusCritical component of all computer based systems; consists of most of the hardware the computer needs in order to run; comes in a variety of shapes and sizes.System UnitCase, Internal Bays, Buses, Ports, Hard Drive, Motherboard, CPU, CPU Cooler, Memory Module (RAM), Power Supply Unit (PSU), Expansion Slots/CardsInternal Components of the System UnitControl Unit (CU) - retrieves the instructions and the raw data that is input and coordinates or controls the sending of those instructions and data to the ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - does the actual processing of the data; completing mathematical calculations and logical operations to process the data and converting the input of the keyboard text entry to output displayed on the screenParts of the CPUDynamic RAM (DRAM) - typically called main memory Static RAM (SRAM) - cache memory and registersTypes of RAMBIOS stands for: Basic Input Output System; ROM stands for Read Only Memory. Typically stored in ROM chip on the motherboard. Is software NOT hardware, ("basic" operating system that runs when the computer is first turned on). Runs tests of memory and the CPU and initializes hardware components so that the actual Operating System can be loaded from the hard disk. Can't choose the amount or contents.BIOS ROMVacuum tubes, relay switches, the need to program in machine language1st Generation of ComputersSingle chip processor, called microcomputer, first personal computer, rudimentary computer graphics, home use4th Generation of Computers 1971 - 1980.Doubling of transistor count roughly every 18 - 24 months (exponential increase)Moore's LawPunch cards, magnetic tape, hard disks, floppy disks, optical discs, flash memory, cloud storageEvolution of StorageImprove language translator; requires that the components of the software all be defined before compilation can begin; code is more efficientCompilerCharacterized by the creation of windowed operating systems, easier real-world object modeling in programming code, and the application of inheritance in program code.Object Oriented ProgrammingA computer being accessed over the networkRemote ComputerRequires that a full pathway, or circuit, be established before transmission can begin and maintained during the entire transmission; like calling someone on the phoneCircuit Switched NetworkA message's pathway is only established as it is sent; the choice of pathway is based on availability and amount of message trafficPacket Switched NetworkCreates and maintains client network connections to remote serversWorkstationsA software emulator program that permits a computer user to use multiple computers and multiple platforms without the expense of purchasing multiple computers; allows a user to run software for different OS platform in their computer that would not otherwise be able to run that software; this allows multiple users on a network to access the software to support collaboration.Virtual Machine (VM)Responds to queries by pulling from the database. Typically only to local clients.Database ServerTwo email servers communicate with each otherMail ServerLink between two resources; links two routers without any host or network in betweenPoint-to-Point NetworkProtocol, Domain name, Resource/FilenameParts of URL (Uniform Resource Locator)Requires that data is correctIntegrityRequires that information is available when neededAvailabilityPublic - available through public sources; includes names and addresses Sensitive - not considered a threat to a person's privacy if others learn of it; include email addresses Private - information that could be a threat if disclosed to others; includes social security and credit card numbers Confidential - information that an organization will keep secret; includes patentable information and business plansInformation Security ClassificationsEmails to people to redirect them to a website to perform some operation but the website is a fake and just takes the informationPhishingAllows you to obtain anything being sent over a network if the data being transmitted isn't encryptedPacket SniffingSelf contained programs that do not need other programs to propagate across computers and computer networksWormIdea of obfuscating the information that resides on a computer or sent over a network so that if it is intercepted the hacker will be unable to use the informationEncryptionApplication SoftwarePrograms end users run to accomplish tasks.Productivity SoftwareApplication software used to aid in productivity. I.E. Presentation software, word processor, spreadsheets.Internet Usage SoftwareEmail, FTP client, web browserSystem SoftwareConsists of programs that make up the OS and directly support system itself. **Includes services or DAEMONSServer SoftwareWorks with hardware to provide network service.Local ApplicationSoftware stored on an individual computer.IntranetA LAN that uses IP. Used to communicate within organization.Cloud ComputingAllows organization to access resources/app anywhere, anytime. Beneficial because an org. may access resources it may not normally have.Operating SystemsAllows a user to easily access hardware/software, required to maintain computer environment.KernelCore component of OS. Loads when computer first boots Sits on top of hardware, is interface b/w hardware and software.Device DriversInterface b/w OS and hardware.ShellInterface for user, often personalized. The shell provides access to the kernel. I.E. The GUI will translate mouse motions into calls to kernel/routines. Desktop elements include shortcuts, windows theme, menus, background.Services (Daemons)OS programs that start when OS is loaded. They run in the background and wait for an event to initiate.Utility ProgramsAllow user to monitor system performance.Web ServerRole is to respond to HTTP requests. *Most HTTP requests are for HTML docs, but could include any web accessible resource. It's all combined into the URL. **APACHE is most popular web server-can execute scripts for dynamic pages, use security mechanisms, log request for trend tracking.Proxy ServerActs as a giant cache and allows pages accessed frequently in an organization to be accessed locally. *Also provides degree of anonymity, since IP address recorded is for proxy server and not individual client. *Can also be used to block requests to certain servers (i.e Facebook) *Can reject responses that contain certain content (i.e "porn") **SQUID is most common, but APACHE can also be used as proxy server.Database ServerPermits dB access across a network. Performs tasks such as data analysis, data manipulation, security,and archiving. May/may not store database itself. **MySQL is popular.FTP ServerHosts files and allows clients access to files. Access is in form of uploading/downloading files. Requires either user has an account or logs in as anonymous user.File ServerComputer with large hard disk storing files, but can also store software to be run over network.Email ServerProvides email service. Accepts email request from clients. IMAP,POPS,HTTP,MAPI,MIMEString DataAlphanumeric or text Ex: James (Last name) 623 Hill StreetNumber IntegerNumeric data, whole numbers. Ex: 4Floating PointDecimal. Ex: 4.2Date/TimeType of DataBoolean/LogicalType of Data. Ex: True/False (in reply to active subscriber?) Only two possible answers: yes/no or true/falseFlat File DatabaseOne large single table without relations between tables. *Most common is CSV file (files separated by comma) *Flat file is used if amount of data is fairly small. Ex: SpreadsheetRelational DatabaseMost common structure for database. *Distinguished by multiple tables with interrelated fields. *When queried, data can be pulled form any # of relations that may be contained in multiple databases. *Provides lots of flexibility.Hierarchical DatabaseOrganizes data by using tree-like or organizational chart type structure. *Main data points can have multiple sub-data points (Parent/child structure)-Subpoints can only have one main data point. * Records can be broken up so one portion is in one location and another is in another section. Ex: Employee database could list all employees, but a child relation could contain info about employee position, pay level, responsibilities. Another child relation could include info about employee projects. Sub data is always specific to main data point.TuplesRecords represented by rows.Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)Most commonly used network connections. Looks just as it sounds, wires twisted together in a pair.Fiber Optic CableTransmits via light pulses as opposed to electromagnetic ones.Twisted PairNetwork connection commonly used in the past. It is still seen a lot today because it was used extensively in the phone systems. Is cheap and and already in place. **transmits using electromagnetic waves.Coaxial CableCommonly used network connection. *Transmits using electromagnetic waves.BandwidthTransfer rate permissible over the media, and is described as bps or b/s (bits per second). **Modern bandwidth is described in millions/billions bits per second (i.e. Mbps or Gbps) *Older tech limited to thousands, (i.e. 56 Kbps)Network HubDevice that connects multiple computers together. *Broadcasts to all connected devices, even if message is intended for just one.Network SwitchDevice that connects multiple computers together. **Able to broadcast to just one if message is intended for one, but has ability to send message to all if needed.RouterUsed to connect multiple networks together. **Has decision making abilities, can purposefully drop messages if message traffic exceeds capacity. In the event multiple messages are sent, router can make the decision to determine which message is sent first.TransmissionLast step network performs when sending a message.ReceptionFirst step when network receives message.Circuit Switch NetworkRequires full pathway (or circuit) to be established and maintained during entire submission. Ex: Phone network b/c path exists during entire conversation and communication can be both ways.Packet Switch NetworkMessage pathway established as it's sent. The choice of the pathway is determined by network availability. Ex: Message traffic.Peer to PeerWorkstation in which each computer is equal to another. *Cheaper than other types of servers and workstations.Client-ServerClient is computer that will request info from another computer (the server) . The server takes requests and responds. *More expensive than peer to peer. BENEFITS: More storage=faster response time.Virtual MachineAllows access to multiple machines without having to purchase multiple computers. Also allows user to run software for a computer that normally would not be able to run that software.Network ServerDedicated, high performance computer with large hard disk drives. It may be in a cabinet so multiple servers can be housed. **Stand alone computer, not a desktop.Information Security Assurance Goals"CIA" 1. Confidentiality 2. Integrity 3. AvailabilityIAS ConfidentialityRequires data be kept secure so that it does not fall to unauthorized users. It goes beyond security measures and extends to policies. Security measures should extend beyond network. A stolen laptop should not violate confidentiality.IAS IntegrityRequires data are correct. Requires 3 different efforts: 1. Data gathering should include an accuracy component. 2. Data must be entered into system accurately. 3. Once data is in dB, changes made will leave a record of when the change was made and by whom.IAS AvailabilityRequires data/information be available when needed.Steps of Strategic Risk Analysis1.Identify organization information assets. 2. Identify vulnerabilities. 3.Identify threats. 4.Implement policies.Social EngineeringTargets users directly, could include calling and asking for password because there is an issue. Could also include phishing, which involves emails that will redirect to a malicious website.SQL InjectionHacker issues a SQL command to web server as part of URL. B/c web server is not expecting SQL command, may pass SQL command to database. Malicious SQL command may then do damage.Buffer OverflowMost well known type of software injection attack. Because buffer is limited in size, if software doesn't ensure insertions in buffer are limited in size, sufficient amounts of malicious code could overflow buffer. Malicious overflow code could then be stored in memory and run to perform operations inserted by hacker.White HatEthical HackerBlack HatUnethical HackerGrey HatBoth ethical and unethical at times. A fence sitter.Packet SniffingMeans of obtaining a password or anything sent over network without encryption.What is the definition of information technology?It is the technology used to create, maintain, and make information accessible.Which IT position has the responsibillity of working with routers and switches?Network AdministratorIn which generation were silicon chips first used in computers?Third generationWhich low-level language corresponds one to one with assembly?machine languageWhat allows an organization to use software through the internet?Saas or Software as a ServiceWhat is one of IT's role in golobalization?It allows companies to reach a wider customer base.Which category of computer has an external flat screen monitor, optical disk drive, and a large capacity hard drive?DesktopWhich two software application packages would be classified as productivity software?Spreadsheet program and word processorWhich two computer peripherals are connected to the computer through a port?External microphone and USB flash driveWhich term is defined as a collection of information used to support management of an organization?Information systemA website logs the timestamp, location, and browser of every visitor. It then aggregates this content into peak traffic times and days,minimum and maximum hits for each country and region, and popularity of certain browsers among visitors. What is the timestamp considered in this scenerio?Dataa dept manager is creating a budget estimate for the upcoming year. The manager would like to determine whether the data will be available when the decision for the next year have to be made. Which characteristic of valuable data is the manager considering?ReliableWhich two are parts of an information system?Databases and Networks.What is the difference between processing and storage?Processing involves temporary information, while storage involves permenant information.What type of information processing allows input data to be accepted as a set of records and processed as a unit?Batch processingWhat is the role of the systems administrator?To install and maintain network resources.Which action would be important for the IT department to take in order to help their business meet the goal of increased expansion?Expanding the infrasturcture to support additional locations.What step should be taken by a business when a third-party solution is found that will benefit a project?Contact the group to arrange a demo of their product.Which risk assessment question is part of the initiation phase?Could the end users reject the outcome of the project?In what phase of a project does time estimation occur?PlanningWhat effect does scope creep have on a project?It increases unplanned costs for the project.Which system requirement is an example of considering user needs in the design of an information system?Allowing easy access to customer account information.Which type of systems testing includes having the customer test the system in an operational setting to see if it is useful?User AcceptanceWhich type of systems conversion involves starting the conversion with a portion of end users?PilotWhat are two necessary elements of business continutiy planning?Identifying risks that may occurAssessing key organizational activities.Which disaster recovery strategy is used to save information to multiple hard drives at the same time?Data mirrorringWhich action would support confidentiality?Updating security software.Which regulation governs the actions of a company in case of data records being compromised, lost, or stolen?Security Breach Notification lawsHow can an organization assist employees with the ethical use of information technology?By developing policies for information usage.What is part of the role of an It professional assocation?Provides professional standards for ethical behavior.Engages in best practices for information systemsWhat is outside of the rold of an IT professional assocation?Writes laws dealing with information technologyWhich benefit is provided by a computer network in a business?Cost for hardware resources are decreased.A software emulator program that permits a computer user to use multiple computers and multiple platforms without the expense of purchasing mutiple computers.virtual machinesEach computer is roughly equal to every other computer.Peer-to-peerOne computer will request information from another computer, which responds with requested information.Client-serverAllows the user to control the actions of the software and through the software, to access hardware.The operating systemWhich action by application programs requires support from an operating system?An internet browser displays a web page.What is true about the Linux operating system?Linux runs on both servers and workstationsWhich characteristic identifies application sotware that is cloud based?provided by third party providersWhat type of software permits free temporary use followed by long term activation for a fee?SharewareWhat is the purpose of the End User License Agreement for a commercial software package?Establishes the customer's right tot use the software.What is the difference between proprietary and open-source software license?Proprietary software has a cost whereas open-source software is free.Which two components are parts of a central processing unit?Control Unit (CU)Arithmetic logic unit (AlU)An employee needs to edit a contract and prepare a hard copy for a project team. Which two peripheral devices should be used?printermonitorWhich motherboard component helps cool the cpu?heat sinkWhich item is a storage device?flash driveIn which type of network topology is each networked device directly connectd to every other networked device?MeshWhich communication medium is typically used when sending data transmissions over very long distances?Radio signalsWhat indicates a specific internet location?The ip addressTranslates human readable aliases into IP addressesdomain name system (DNS)Which part of a Uniform Resource Locator identifies the location of the document on the server?Resource path idWhich goal of information Assurance (IA) requires that information is accessible when needed?AvailabilityWhich technique uses all possible combination of letters and numbers to crack a password?brute forcewhich is a characterisc of high level languages?language translator programs are required.how does a compiler work?It requires the components of the software to be defined from the onset.On which tier of the n tier architecture model are user interfaces developed?presentationWhich component facilitates communication between the other two components in the MVC architecture model?controllerWhat is the difference between a compiled and interpreted computer language?compiler translates an entire program into executable progam which can be run at a later time, while the interpreter does this incrementally.Which two languages have traditionally been used for automation rather than software development?TCL and Python because they are scripting languagesWhich is true of databases and the application that interact with them?Applications are interdependent with the database.What is another term for a formula that outlines how to execute a task?AlgorithmWhat is the role of drivers in facilitating communication between application and databases?They allow the ODBC to be used for interactions with the database and applications.Which sql clause is used to inform the database management system which table should be interrograted by the query?FROMWhich data type is used to represent product order code that comprises alphanumeric characters?String dataWhy is it important to ensure that data support business goals?To aid in making strategic decisions.In which category of the DIKW hierarchy would business intelligence be located?KnowledgeWhich field must contain a unique value in order for a relational database table to function?primary keyWhat are the three main categories of databases?Flat file, relational, and hierarchalWhat is the database administrators role in security?To institute protocols to protect the databases from external threats.A single chip process developed in 1974 by IBMmicroprocessorOver the years, the number of transisters that can be placed on a chip has increased by how much?By orders of maginitude rather than linearlyWhat is the phenomenon observed that the number of transistors on a chip doubles every year and will continue for at least the next ten years?Moore's lawHow long has Moore's law continued to be a trend?from 1965 to the presentIs moore's law an observation or a physical law?observationThe fetch-execute cycle is performed in an overlapped fashion on several instructions.pipelines cpua programming language that is a lengthy list of 1s and 0s.machine languageAn early language translator that would translate an assembly program into machine language.assemblersLanguage that consists of English words, mathematical notation, and familiar syntax such as a semicolon used to end statements.high level languageWhat was the operation system called in the early 1960s?a resident monitorWhich statement allowed the programmer to transfer control from any location in a progam to anywhere else in the program?GOTOWhat does the GOTO statement create?spaghetti codeWhat replaced the GOTO statement with high level control constructs such as while loops, and if-else statements, and is not allowed to use the GOTO statement?structured programmingA stand alone entity that would be programmed to handle its own internal methods as well as messages received from other objects.An objectWhat is the main difference between a compiled language and an interpreted language?An interpreted language runs inside of a special environment called the interpreter.When a programmer enters a command, what converts that command to machine language and executes it?the interpreterperl, php, ruby, python, and asp are interpreted languages that are also what other type of language?scripting languagesRelies on a session and allows you to test out an idea because they are executed as they're written.interpreterRequires that the componenets of the software all be defined from the onset and is considered to have more efficient code.compilerWhat generation used vacuum tubes in computers?first generationWhat generation of computers began to use transistors?secondwhat generation of computers introduced the silicon chip?thirdwhat type of computer still uses silicon chips?tabletWhat generation of computers introduced operating systems?thirdWhat do integrated circuits need to function?silicon chipa location beacon that uses bluetooth technology and can be embedded in any location aware mobile device.iBeaconsThe myriad of types of devices that can and will be connected to the internet in the next few years.the internet of things (IoT)What does RFID stand for?Radio frequency identification deviceRefers to data sets that are so large and complex that they will require more advanced database management/processing tools than we currently use.big datawhat cloud service provides access and use of software to businesses through the internet?Saas or software as a servicewhich form of cloud computing enables teams of developers to quickly and reliably develop and deliver applications by accessing the same environment in real-time.Paas or Platform as a ServiceWhich cloud service provides all the resources (servers, data storage) tha an IT dept needs ouside of the org making them accessible by anyone, anywhereIaaS or Infrastructure as a ServiceReduced costsIncreased speed of development of projectsThe ability to quickly and easily scale operations.Less reliance on internal IT expertise.Benefits of cloud computingWhat are the risks of cloud computing?Org becomes dependent on the reliability and performance of a third party vendor.Adverse effects on internal IT employees.Could raise concerns about data ownership and compliance issues.Possible breach in security.What are the main components in a computer?CPUmemoryinput/output (i/o) systembuswhat does ipos stand for?input, process, output, storageIncludes all peripheral devices for input, output, storage and network.i/o subsystemconsists of long term storage devicesdisk drivestapesThe device that permits information to move between each component.The busAlso known as the chassis or cabinet.The case of a computerThe circuitry and electrical channels that enable communication among the electronic components.the busthe printed circuit board that houses the cpu, memory chips, and expansion cards in any computer.the motherboardalso referred to as "the chip"CPURetrieves instructions and raw data (input) and manages the transmission of the instructions and data to the alu.Control unitCompletes mathematical calculations and logical operations to process the data, converting the input of keyboard text entry to output displayed on the screen.arithmetic logic unitcontrols the speed at which instructions are processed.The system clockWhat is the measurement unit used to identify clock speed on today's computers?GHzWhat does BIOS stand forBasic input output systemThe basic operating system that runs when a computer is first turned on. It runs test of memory and the cpu,and initilizes hardware components so that the actual Operating system can be loaded from the hard disk.BIOS ROMTemporarily stores data before it is processed and sent to your screen or printer.RAMVolitile memory that disappears when the computer is turned off or loses power.RAMHouses CDs and DVDs, typically located on the front of the system unit for easy access.bayscan insert modem cards, wireless access cards, and other PC cards such as camera cardsslotsCan connect additional input, output, storage, and communication devicesportscomputer that has the least amount of performancehandheldcomputer that has the mid amount of performance capabilitylaptopcomputer with the most amount of performance capabilitydesktopconsists of programs that end users run to accomplish tasks. An example of a type of this software includes the email client, web browser, and ftop clientapplication softwareconsists of applications that are usefule to everyone such as word processor, presentation software, spreadsheet program, database mgmt systems, calendar program, address book, and data organizer.productivity softwaresoftware more specific towards artists and graphic designersdrawing softwarealso referred to as horizontal softwareproductivity softwareSoftware used by select groups with an organization or to a specific discipline such as music sequencers, samplers, and digital recorders for muscians.vertical softwareprogams that make up the operating system and directly supports the computer system itself.system softwarePieces of the operating system that run in the background all of the timedaemons or servicesworks with hardware to provide a network service, types of software includes web servers, email servers, and database serversserver softwaresoftware stored on an individual computerlocal applicationthe ability to have computation anywhere at any timeubiquitous computingAndroid, Chrom, and iOS are common operating systems for which type of computer?mobile devicesdedicated computers within a network whose function is to respond to network requests and provide a network serviceserverloaded when the computer is first booted, included components that handle process mgmt, resource mgmt, and memory mgmtkernelsits on top of the hardware and is the interface between hardware and softwarethe kernela piece of the operating system that provides specific interfaces between the OS running a computer and hardware.device driversan interface for the user that provides access to the kernelthe shellprograms that allow the user to monitor and improve system performancesystem utilitiessometimes referred to as root or superuseradministrator accounthat is the role of a web serverto respond to HTTP requestsWhat does http stand for?hypertext transfer protocolUsed in an organization to act as a giant cache of web pages that anyone in the organization has recently retrieved.proxy serverwhat type of server has the capability of blocking specific servers and rejecting responses that contain certain content?proxy serverpermits database access across a network. Performs tasks such as data analysis, data manipulation, security, and archiving.database serverlike a web server, this server host files and allows clients to access those files. However, it instead provides access in the form of uploading and downloading files.ftp servera computer with a large hard disk storing files that any or many users of the network may wish to access.file serverdata that has been processedinformationin the dikw, what is data?data is the input directly received by human or computer.in dikw, what is information?information is inferred from data, meaning that one or many processes have been applied to the data to tranform it into a more useful form.in dikw, what is knowledge?refined information that hte user of the knowledge is able to call forth only relevant portions of information when needed.in dikw, what is wisdom?having both knowledge and experiencewhich characteristic of quality data requires data being used to be applied directly to the decision being made.relevancecharacateristic of quality data where data is provided efficiently and on time so that companies can utilize it in their business.timelycharacteristic of quality data whereas data must be complete and not contain errors or lapses of data.thoroughcharacteristic of quality data whereas data is captured once only, where possible, and captured as close to the point of activity as possible.accuratecharacteristic of quality data whereas data should reflect stable and consistent data collection processes across collection points and over time, whether using manual or computer based systems or a combination.reliableWhat four operations does a computer perform?inputprocessingOutputStorgageThe physical components of a computerhardwarethe programs and other operating information used by the computersoftwarea collection of computers and resources connected by various media so they can communicate with each other.networkThe people who use the computer systemusersA set of rules established to govern how people behave and interact with each othera protocola requirment of all computers to communicate over the internettransmission control protocol/ internet protocol or TCP/IPA collection of protocols that is sometimes referred to as a protocol stacktcp/ipcommercial software purchased from a vendorproprietaryproprietary software produced by a company that commercially markets softwaresoftware housesoftware free from purchase, but not necessarily free in how you use it.freewarewhat types of software is ususally software that has become obsolete because a new software has replaced it, or is software that the original producer no longer wants to maintain and provide support for?freewarepublic domainsoftware that has been moved into the public domain and are made available as executables.public domainsoftware created in the open source community and made freely available as source codeopen sourceprotects an original work, but no the ideas behind the workcopyrightexcluse right to make copies, prepare derivative works, and distribute copies of the work for the duration of the author's life plus 70 years.copyright