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132 terms

Anatomy Glossary for Test 1

STUDY
PLAY
Anatomy
Human body structure
Biology
Study of all living things
Botany
Study of plant life
Embryology
Human anatomy before birth
Gross Anatomy-Macroscopic Anatomy
Anatomy with naked eye
Histology-Microscopic Anatomy
Anatomy with microscope
Morbid Anatomy-Pathological Anatomy
Anatomy affected by disease
Physiology
Human body function
Regional Anatomy
Anatomy one area of the body at a time
example would be a dentist would study the face and more specifically the teeth
Surface Anatomy-Topographical Anatomy
Anatomy from the outside
Systemic Anatomy
Anatomy one system at a time
Zoology
Study of animal life
List 10 Characteristics of LIfe
(or living things)
MOVEMENT-Ability to change position
RESPONSIVENESS-Reaction to changes
GROWTH-Increase in size
REPRODUCTION-Production of new organisms
RESPIRATION-Breathing
DIGESTION-Breakdown of foods into simpler forms
ABSORPTION-Passage of digested foods into simpler forms
CIRCULATION-Movement of body fluids from place to place
EXCRETION-Removal of wastes from the body
(ex: sweat, vomit, urine, feces)
ASSIMILATION-Changing of absorbed substances into other
forms
(ex: brain and big toe won't last long without
Oxygen)
Levels of organization of the body
CHEMICAL LEVEL-Atoms, Molecules, Protoplasm
CELL-Basic unit of structure and function in the human body
TISSUE-A group of similar cells arranged for the performance
of a particular function
ORGAN-A group of different tissues arranged for the perfor-
mance of a particular function
SYSTEM-A group of different organs arranged for the perfor-
mance of a particular function
ORGANISM-A group of different systems arranged to make-
up the complete body
Organ systems of the human body
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM-The heart, vessels, blood & lymph
including LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM-The alimentary canal
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM-The ductless glands
EXCRETORY SYSTEM-The kidneys, bladder, and ducts
(also the urinary system)
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM-The skin
MUSCULAR SYSTEM-The muscles
NERVOUS SYSTEM-The brain, spinal cord, and nerves
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM-The sex glands and structures
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM-The lungs, nose, breathing
SKELETAL SYSTEM-The bones
URINARY SYSTEM-The kidneys, bladder, and ducts
(also the excretory system)
Regions of the abdomen
4-region plan
(Quadrant-fourth of something)
...
Regions of the abdomen
9-region plan
(remember"E" is umbilical then work-out from "E" for the other regions)
FYI-ABC-Superior/Lateral
DEF-Medial/Lateral
GHI-Inferior/Lateral
...
Circulatory System
The heart, vessels, blood and lymph including Lymphatic System
Digestive System
The alimentary canal
Endocrine System
The ductless glands
Excretory System
How we get rid of waste in urinary system
Integumentary System
The skin
Muscular System
The muscles
Nervous System
The brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Reproductive System
The sex glands and structures
Respiratory System
The lungs, nose, and breathing
Skeletal System
The bones
Urinary System
The kidneys, bladder, and ducts or Excretory System
Anatomical Position
Body standing erect with the arms handing ata the side of the body
Anterior (Ventral)
Pertaining to, or located toward the front of the body or body part
Cadaver
A dead human body used in anatomical study
Central (Deep)
Pertaining to the center or interior of a body or body part
Distal
Located farther from the point of attachment. (used when referring to extremities)
Dorsal (posterior)
Pertaining to or located toward, the back of the body or body part.
Inferior
Pertaining to or located towards the lower portion of the body or body part.
Lateral
Pertaining to or located away from the median plane of the body or body part.
Medial
Pertaining to, or located toward the median plane of the body or body part.
Parietal
Pertaining to the WALL of a body cavity
Peripheral (Superficial)
Pertaining to the surface of the body or body part.
Posterior (Dorsal)
...
Prone
A position of the body or body parts in which it is turned face down for face back.
Proximal
Located closer to the point of attachment ( used when referring to extremities.)
Superior
Pertaining to or located toward the upper portion of the body or body part.
Supine
A position of the body or body part in which it is turned face up or face-forward.
Visceral
pertaining to the ORGANS contained within the body cavities
Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane)
An imaginary vertical plane passing through the body from side to side so as the be at right angles to the median plane
Horizontal Plane (Transverse Plane)
An imaginary plane passing through the body horizontally.
Median Plane (Midsagittal Plane)
An imaginary vertical plane passing through the body from an anterior to posterior so as to be divided the body into 2 symmetrical (equal) halves.
Sagittal Plane
An imaginary vertical plane passing through the body from anterior to posterior so as to be parallel to the medial plane
Anatomical Guide
A description of the position of a body part in relation to the position of adjacent parts.
Anatomical Limits
Anatomical Limitsà point of termination of a body part in relation to adjacent structures.
Linear Guide
An imaginary line drawn on the surface of the body to represent the approximate location of some internal structure.
Abdominal Cavity (Abdominal-Pelvic-Cavity)
Cavity within the trunk of the body before the diaphragm. Between the diaphragm and the floor of the pelvis.
Abdominal Cavity Proper
Portion of abdominal cavity that doesn't not include the pelvic cavity. Between the diaphragm and the superior border of the pelvic.
Cranial Cavity
Cavity within the cranium, containing the brain
Dorsal Cavity
Cavity that is formed jointly by the cavity within the cranium and the cavity within the spinal column.
Mediastinal Cavity (Mediastinum)
Cavity within the thorax, between the lungs.
Nasal Cavities
Cavities within the nose. Divided by a vertical nasal septum formed by the lower bone.
Oral Cavities
Buccal Cavity
Orbital Cavity
2 cavities on either side of the anterior portion of the skull, each containing an eyeball
Pelvic Cavity
Portion of the abdominal cavity found only in the pelvis.
Pericardial Cavity
Cavity within the pericardium surrounding the heart.
Peritoneal Cavity
Cavity within the sac formed by the peritoneum
Pleural Cavities
2 cavities within the thorax, one on either side of the lungs.
Spinal Cavity
Cavity within the spinal column, containing the spinal cord.
Thoracic Cavity
Large cavity within the thorax, containing the thoracic viscera.
Ventral Cavity
Large cavity contained within the trunk of the body.
Abdomen
Body area between the diaphragm and pelvis
Abdominal Cavity Proper
The portion of the abdominal cavity that does not include the pelvic cavity. (Between diaphragm and superior border of the pelvis.
Abdominal Region
Also known as the abdomen or abdomino-pelvic cavity.
Abdomino
Pelvic Cavity- The cavity below the diaphragm. (Abdomen, Abdominal Region)
Cervical Region
"Neck"
Chest
Thorax or Thoracic Region
Cranium
Surrounds the Brain
Femoral Region
"Thigh"
Head (Skull)
Consists of the face and cranium
Leg
Lower extremity (lower leg or calf)
Mediastinum
Middle section of the thorax, that is, between the two lungs.
Neck
Cervical Region
Pelvic Cavity
that portion of the abdominal cavity, found only in the pelvis.
Pericardial Cavity
The cavity within the pericardium, surrounding the heart, found within the mediastinum.
Peritoneal Cavity
The cavity within the sac formed by the peritoneum.
Pleural Cavities
The two cavities within the thorax, one on either side, containing the lungs
Skull (head)
Bones of the head.
Thoracic Region
Chest or thorax, above the diaphragm.
Thorax-
Chest or thoracic region.
Adipose
fat
Example of the Hematopoietic Tissues
Blood
Connective Tissue
The binders of the body, also serve as the framework of the body.
Endocardium
Inside layer or lining of the heart.
Endometrium
The inside lining of the uterus.
Endothelium
Inside lining of the vascular (circulatory system) system.
Epicardium
(Visceral Pericardium)
is the outer layer or covering of the heart.
Epidermis
The outer most covering of the skin (integumentary system).
Epithelial Tissue
Linings and coverings of the body. Produces secretions to lubricate and protect surfaces.
Epithelial Tissue Proper
ALL Epithelial tissue that is NOT endothelium or mesothelium.
Fascia
Sheet of connective tissue.
Glandular Epithelium
Make up the glands of the body.
Hematopoietic Tissues
Blood forming consisting of blood and lymph
Mesothelium
Outside covering of the hollow organs of the body or the lining of the body cavities. Always includes the serous membranes.
Mucous Membranes
The epithelial tissues that line those structures tat open to the outside of the body. Inside lining of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.
Nerves
(Cranial nerves or spinal nerves) example of nerve tissue.
Nervous Tissue
(nerve tissue)- Makes up with the nerves of the body.
Parietal pericardium
(Pericardium) lines the pericardial sac.
Parietal pleura
Lines the rib cage.
Pericardial membranes
(Pericardium) lining of the pericardial cavity.
Peritoneum
The outside covering of most of the organs in the abdominal cavity.
Pleura
(pleural membranes) lining of the pleural cavities.
Pleural Membranes
(Pleura) lining of the pleural cavities.
Spinal Cord
Example of nerve tissue.
Spinal Nerves
or Cranial nerves make up the nerve tissue.
Tunica Adventitia
(external)
the outer, fibroelastic coat of a blood vessel or other tubular structure. (outside covering of a vessel-artery, vein or lymph vessel.)
Tunica Intima
(internal)
the inner, serous coat of an artery. (inside lining of a vessel,-artery, vein, or lymph vessel)
Visceral pericardium
(epicardium)
is the outer layer or covering of the heart....
Visceral pleura
Covers each lung
Connective Type Membranes
.erived from connective tissues.
Endometrium
Inside lining of the uterus.
Epicardium or viscerl pericardium
is the outer layer or covering of the heart.
Epithelial Type Membranes
Derived from epithelium
Membrane
Sheet of thin layer
Mesothelium
A thin expanse (layer) of tissue.
Mucous Membranes
Lining those body structures that open to the outside of the body.
Parietal pericardium
(pericardium)
lines the pericardial sac
Parietal pleura
Lines the rib cage
Pericardial membranes
lining of the pericardial cavity...
Pericardium
...
Peritoneum
The outside covering of most of the organs in the abdominal cavity.
Pleura
(pleural membranes)
lining of the pleural cavities
Serous fluid
(serum)
that acts as a lubricant to prevent friction as an organ rubs against another.
Serous Membranes-
Lining those hollow organs and cavities that DO NOT open to the outside of the body.
Visceral pericardium
(epicardium)
is the outer layer or covering of the heart.
Visceral pleura
Covers each lung