psychological questions i struggled on

use a sporting example to explain what is meant by varied practice
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Terms in this set (49)
describe state anxietyan emotion response of apprehensionDescribe 'in the zone' of optimal functioningoptimal levels of arousal fully focused in control happy fulfilledexplain how social class influenced the development of amateurism and professionalism in sport in post 1950 industrial Britainpre industrial = they did not mix post industrial = could take part in some activities together as long as the different classes had different roles often the activity was the working class persons job and the upper class person would gamble on the activity amateurs = upper class professionals = working class who earned an income factory workers were paid with broken time payment to make up for missing work in order to place cricket - played by both classes but the upper classes earned more respect by having different roles e.g. batting first or being captaindiscuss how an audience may affect a performer at each stage of learninggeneral - increases level of arousal, social facilitation and inhibition cognitive stage - negative effect/ social inhibition due to increase in arousal and the change of the dominant response occurring. at this stage the dominant response is likely to be incorrect associative - as the player progresses the effect of the audience will become more positive. at the early stages the audience may still prove to be a distractor and inhibit performance. the effect of the audience at this stage may also be affected by the type of skill the performer is completing autonomous - positive effect as the increased arousal increases the likelihood of the dominate response which is likely to be correct. autonomous performers will be able to block out distractions and focus on relevant cuesdescribe the cognitive theory of learning movement skillsgestaltist approach involves whole learning by considering the complete skill involves problem solving or insight learning previous experience is used intervening variables are taken into accountpositives of verbal guidance for a beginner- performers knows what needs to improve which helps to build a mental picture - quick and can be given during the performance - can be used to motivate the performer to improve - can hold the attention o the performers so focuses attention if used correctly - questioning techniques can lead to personal developmentnegative of verbal feedback for a beginner- if verbal feedback is not accurate it can lead to errors in performance - can lead to information overload with too many instructions - they may not understand the guidance - some movements are very hard to explain and would benefit more from visual guidance - can be boringwhat are the positives of manual guidance for a beginner- gives kinaesthetic awareness - van reduce fear - increases safety in dangerous situations - can build confidencewhat are the negatives of manual guidance for a beginnerfalse kinesthesis performer may not like the coach touching them performer may become over reliant on coach or less confident when support is removed - is only relevant for some skills or movementwhat is meant by positive feedbackreinforces skill learning gives information about successful outcomeswhat is meant by negative feedbackinformation about an unsuccessful outcomeexplain three ways in which persuasive communication might change a sports performers attitudehigh status persuader e.g. football coach trying to persuade a player to go to training the information must be accurate e.g. going swimming will help you lose weight the recipient needs to be open to persuasion e.g. an stubborn individual may provide a counter argument that running causes overuse injuries the place where the persuasion is to take place should be where the receipt feels comfortable e.g. if wanting to persuade someone that diving in football is wrong, so it after they won a match with no diving cognitive dissonance - persuasive communication can be used to create cognitive dissonanceidentify qualities which public school boys develop through sportleadership - for e.g. being the captain of the sport team courage - for e.g. to make a tackle against an older boy in rugby sportsmanship - for e.g. helping a player who you fouled or playing by the rules of the game team work - playing for your school respect - accepting the decisions of the refereehow the improvement of transport impacted in sport in post 1850 industrial Britainled to standardisation of rules which meant sport could be played beyond the local area allowed national competition increased participation as availability of transport allowed more fixtures to take place increased spectatorship or crowds as teams could travel further it enabled leagues to be established horse racing became more frequent due to being able to transport the horses by trainhow the improvement of law and order impacted in sport in post 1850 industrial Britainsport become less violent decline in blood sports die to RSPCA more controlled gambling law makers were middle and upper class so their sports were still alloweddiscuss the impact that global media coverage of sport may have on arousal level and performancemedia can create a hyper - can lead to an increase in arousal levels causing performance to improve however it could cause arousal to go past optimum causing a catastrophe sport can now be viewed worldwide - global audiences increase the importance of the event helping the performer to achieve their optimum. however global audiences could cause to a catastrophe larger wages - adds pressure for the performer to do well which increases arousal levels more sponsorship causing pressure from corporate sponsors increasing arousal invasion of private lives - creates anxiety in daily life which can be channelled positively or negativelyexplain how operant conditioning affects the learning of motor skills- the performer learns the new motor skill by being conditioned by a stimuli which is 'connected' to the appropriate response - the correct behaviour is then reinforced - this forms the S-R bond - the performer will learn the skills faster if the reinforcement is given on every occasion - a process of trial and error learning occurs for this new skill - reinforcement can also be negative - punishment can be given to prevent a response occurring and weaken SR bondstate two ways in which a coach could help a performer who is in the cognitive stage of learning move on to the associative stage of learning- feedback of successful movements - allows lots of practice time - help learners to understand what went wring during any unsuccessful movements/develop intrinsic feedback - demonstrations - verbal guidance to highlight relevant cues - provide manual/mechanical guidance to reduce fearadvantages of intrinsic feedback- quicker/readily available as it is gained as the movement is performed - movements can be altered during the performance so it helps improve performance there and then performer does not need to rely on anyone else to gain this feedback - performer does not need to rely on anyone else to gain this feedback, therefore can develop performance on their own - if the performer is in the autonomous stage of learning then the feedback is likely to be correct and interpreted instantly in order to improve performancedisadvantages of intrinsic feedback- may be interpreted incorrectly by performer if they are in the cognitive stage of learning and therefore negatively affect performance - performers, regardless of stage of learning, have different sensory effectiveness so some will gain more feedback and be able to improve performance whereas others wont be able to gain as much and therefore not improve performance as muchadvantages of extrinsic feedback- coach can see what is happening and give feedback - can help improve motivation if coach gives certain points to work on - feedback from others with more knowledge is likely to be more accurate - cognitive learners need external feedbackdisadvantages of extrinsic feedback- feedback may be inaccurate and result in incorrect performance - feedback can reduce performers motivation and performance can deteriorate - performer becomes over reliant on extrinsic feedback which does not develop kinaesthetic awareness therefore performer cannot correct their own mistakes when performing - too much feedback from too many sources could overload the performerwhat is social inhibitiona decrease in performance when in the presence of othersdescribe three strategies a performer could use to minimise social inhibitionimaginary techniques to block out the audience relaxation techniques to help the performer relax and reduce tension train in front of an audience to enable to performer to get used to it support from peers and coach to reassure performer rehearse skills to ensure that they are automatic/ dominant response is correct decrease the importance of the eventidentify the three reasons why a sports performer may set goalsincrease motivation build confidence encourage persistence alleviate anxiety control arousal improve performance improve focus monitor progresswhat is meant by 'cult' of athleticisman obsession with the combination of physical endeavour and moral integritydescribe three ways in which former public school boys exported and spread sports from the public school at home and abroadthe boys taking the games to university became teachers and took the games to the other schools the boys forming national governing bodies some of the boys became missionaries and took the games abroad some of the boys joined the arm and took the games abroad the boys set up clubs/leagues they set up factory teams/leagues became community leadersdescribe how law and order has shaped the characteristics of sport in the 21st centurysport is safer - officials/coaches now have legal duty of care to keep players safe on the field - organisers have a legal duty of care to keep spectators safe sport is fairer - players are protected by legal contracts - stricter laws e.g. gambling sport is more equal - equality laws prevent discrimination in sport on basis on gender or race sport is less violent - violence on the field is more likely to be dealt with by legal proceedings - laws aimed at limiting spectator violencewhat are the advantages of knowledge of resultsit is needed to know if the actual movement was successful can motivate performers measurable so can acts as the basis for goal settingwhat are disadvantages of knowledge of resultscan be too statistical based does not develop understanding could reduce motivateexplain two factors that may encourage the copying a demonstrationrepetition of the demo role model of high status successful performance similar age skill seen as relevant to them motivatedDefine personalitywhat makes a person uniqueexplain why an Olympic gymnast may experience some anxiety even though he is not normally an anxious personhe may be experiencing state anxiety could be first Olympics worries about failure may experience evaluation apprehensionusing knowledge of the zone of optimal functioning, explain why this high anxiety could result in a good performance for one but another a poor performanceZOF is the level of anxiety at which an individual performs best people require different levels of anxiety to perform at their best some have a more or less sensitive RAS this gymnast may have a high zone of optimal functioning so he needs higher levels of anxiety to be in his zone for another their zone may be in low levels introverts generally have low ZOFin sport, frustration can often lead to aggression. discuss this statementfrustration can develop when goal is blocked frustration can increase arousal if aggressive act is successful frustration is released if the aggressive act isn't successful this could lead to more frustration frustration does always lead to aggression individuals can overcome frustration aggression can still occur without the presence of an obstaclepositive effect of media coverage on sport in the 21st centurymedia increases commercialism media increases participation sport is now globalised increase in standards of play professional sports player are able to earn high salaries increase in spectators create of role models increased profit of minority improved rulesnegative effect of media coverage on sport in the 21st centurymedia demands control of sports high stakes can cause deviant behaviour e.g. cheating more people spectate rather than participate loss of privacy for sports stars media can highlight issues outside the game which then reflect badly in the sport e.g. mason greenwood biased towards popular sports negative role modellingidentify the aims of the modern Olympic gamesreduced discrimination unite/bring people together develop respect teach fair play develop peace educate people through sportoutline the background to the start if the modern Olympic gamesDe Coubertin was founder influenced by ancient Olympic games influences by much Wenlock games influenced by public school after visiting rugby school