Piaget's term for the way infants think--by using their sense and motor skills--during the first period of cognitive development.
primary circular reactions (ch. 6, pg. 162)
The 1st three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving the infant's own body. The infant senses motion, sucking, noise, & other stimuli, and tries to understand them.
secondary circular reactions (ch. 6, pg. 163)
The 2nd of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving people and objects. Infants respond to other people, to toys, & to any other object they can touch or move.
object permanence (ch. 6, pg. 163)
The realization that objects (including people) still exist when they can no longer be seen, touched, or heard.
tertiary circular reactions (ch. 6, pg. 165)
The third of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving active exploration & experimentation. Infants explore a range of new activities, varying their responses as a way of learning about the world.
"little scientist" (ch. 6, pg. 165)
The stage-five toddler (age 12 to 18 months) who experiments without anticipating the results, using trial and error in active & creative exploration.
deferred imitation (ch. 6, pg. 166)
A sequence in which an infant first perceives something that someone else does & then performs the same action a few hours or even days later.
habituation (ch. 6, pg. 166)
The process of getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure to it.
fMRI (ch. 6, pg. 167)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging, a measuring technique in which the brain's electrical excitement indicates activation anywhere in the brain; fMRI helps researchers locate neurological responses to stimuli.
information-processing theory (ch. 6, pg. 168)
A perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, & output.
affordance (ch. 6, pg. 169)
An opportunity for perception & interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment.
visual cliff (ch. 6, pg. 170)
An experimental apparatus that gives an illusion of a sudden dropoff between one horizontal surface & another.
people preference (ch. 6, pg. 171)
A universal principle of infant perception, consisting of an innate attraction to other humans, which is evident in visual, auditory, tactile, & other preferences.
dynamic perception (ch. 6, pg. 171)
Perception that is primed to focus on movement & change.
head-sparing (ch. 5, pg. 132)
A biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition affects body growth. the brain is he last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition.
norm (ch. 5, pg. 132)
An average, or standard, measurement, calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population.
percentile (ch. 5, pg. 132)
A point on a ranking scale of 0 to 100. The 50th percentile is the midpoint; half the people in the population being studied rank higher and half rank lower.
REM sleep (ch. 5, pg. 133)
Rapids eye movement sleep, a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, & rapid brain waves.
co-sleeping (ch. 5, pg. 134)
A custom in which parents & their children (usually infants) sleep together in the same bed.
neuron (ch. 5, pg. 135)
One of the billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system, especially the brain.
cortex (ch. 5, pg. 136)
The outer layers of the brain in humans & other mammals. Most thinking, feeling, & sensing involve the cortex. (Sometimes called the neocortex.)
axon (ch. 5, pg. 136)
A fiber that extends from a neuron & transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons.
dendrite (ch. 5, pg. 136)
A fiber that extends from a neuron & receives electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons.
synapse (ch. 5, pg. 136)
The intersection between the axon of one neuron & the dendrites of other neurons.
transient exuberance (ch. 5, pg. 136)
The great increase in the number of dendrites that occurs in an infant's brain during the first two years of life.
Brain functions that depend on particular, variable experiences & that therefore may or may not develop in a particular infant.
prefrontal cortex (ch. 5, pg. 139)
The area of cortex at the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, & impulse control.
shaken baby syndrome (ch. 5, pg. 140)
A life-threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back & forth, a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain & breaks neural connections.
self-righting (ch. 5, pg. 140)
The inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit.
sensation (ch. 5, pg. 142)
The response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus.
perception (ch. 5, pg. 142)
The mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation.
binocular vision (ch. 5, pg. 144)
The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image.
motor skill (ch. 5, pg. 145)
The learned ability to move some part of the body, in actions ranging from a large leap to a flicker of the eyelid. (The word motor here refers to movement of muscles.)
reflex (ch. 5, pg. 145)
An unlearned, unvoluntary action or movement emitted in response to a particular stimulus. A reflex is an automatic response that is build into the nervous system & occurs without conscious thought.
gross motor skills (ch. 5, pg. 146)
Physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking & jumping. (The word gross here means "big.")
fine motor skills (ch. 5, pg. 147)
Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands & fingers, such as drawing & picking up a coin. (The word fine here means "small.")
immunization (ch. 5, pg. 150)
A process that stimulates the body's immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease. Immunization may be accomplished either naturally (by having the disease) or through vaccination (often by having an injection).
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) (ch. 5, pg. 153)
A situation in which a seemingly healthy infant, at least 2 months of age, suddenly stops breathing & dies unexpectedly while asleep.
protein-calorie malnutrition (ch. 5, pg. 156)
A condition in which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind. This deprivation can result in several illnesses, severe weight loss, and even death.
marasmus (ch. 5, pg. 157)
A disease of severe protein-calorie malnutrition during early infancy, in which growth stops, body tissues waste away, & the infant eventually dies.
kwashiorkor (ch. 5, pg. 157)
A disease of chronic malnutrition during childhood, in which a protein deficiency makes the child more vulnerable to other diseases, such as measles, diarrhea, & influenza.
reminder session (ch. 6, pg. 173)
A perceptual experience that is intended to help a person recollect an idea, a thing, or an experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment.
child-directed speech (ch. 6, pg. 176)
The high-pitched, simplified, & repetitive way adults speak to infants. (Also called baby talk or motherese.)
babbling (ch. 6, pg. 176)
The extended repetition of certain syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins when babies are between 6 & 9 months old.
holophrase (ch. 6, pg. 177)
A single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought.
naming explosion (ch. 6, pg. 177)
A sudden increase in an infant's vocabulary, especially in the # of nouns, that begins at about 18 months of age.
grammar (ch. 6, pg. 178)
All the methods--word order, verb forms, & so on--that languages use to communicate meaning, apart from the words themselves.
language acquisition device (LAD) (ch. 6, pg. 181)
Chomsky's term for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary, & intonation.
All healthy infants develop the same motor skills in the same sequence. (true or false)
Because of differing infant-care routines, ethnicity is considered a factor in SIDS. (true or false)
During the first year of life, most infants triple their body weight. (true or false)
At birth, newborns cannot focus well on objects at any distance. (true or false)
Approximately 9 percent of the world's children are severely protein-calorie malnourished in their early years. (true or false)
Age norms for the developing of motor skills, such as sitting up and walking, vary from group to group. (true or false)
At birth, the nervous system contains only a fraction of the neurons the developing person will need. (true or false)
At birth, infants' vision is better developed than their hearing. (true or false)
Chronic malnutrition during infancy may lead to permanent damage to the developing brain. (true or false)
By age 2, infants are already half their adult height. (true or false)
Toward the end of the first year, infants can imitate the actions of a person they observe a day earlier. (true or false)
Most developmentalists consider perception to be an automatic process that everyone experiences in the same way. (true or false)
Infants look longer at strangers whose images and voices indicate happiness than at the familiar faces of their mothers. (true or false)
Infants' long-term memory is actually very good. (true or false)
Children all over the world follow the same sequence in early language development. (true or false)
Only infants age 9 months or older notice the difference between a solid surface and an apparent cliff.
Most developmentalists believe that infants develop language in many ways, depending on a variety of factors. (true or false)
When they first begin combining words, infants tend to put them in inverse order, as in "juice more." (true or false)
If a 5-month-old drops a rattle out of the crib, the baby probably will not look down to search for it. (true or false)
According to Freud, an adult who eats, drinks, chews, bites, or smokes excessively may have been weaned too early. (true or false)
Toddlers' self-awareness results more from praise than from accomplishments. (true or false)
Infants use their fathers for emotional cues in uncertain situations as much as their mothers. (true or false)
Infant fear, as expressed in stranger wariness, signals abnormal development. (true or false)
Attachment patterns established in infancy almost never change. (true or false)
Like Freud, Erikson believed that problems that begin in early infancy can last a lifetime. (true or false)
Social referencing-searching the expressions of others for emotional cues-becomes very important as infants reach Piaget's stage of active exploration. (true or false)
Change in temperament is not possible, according to epigenetic theory. (true or false)
High-quality day care, even during the infant's first year, does not lead to negative developmental outcomes. (true or false)
In part because of inborn temperamental characteristics, some children are more difficult to raise and harder to live with. (true or false)
Leila's grandmother was so excited to see her for the first time that she rushed up, reached for her, and began to smother her with kisses. Unfortunately, Leila started to cry and turned away, but accepted her grandmother's approaches later in the day. Leila is most likely a(n): a.) slow-to-warm baby b.) difficult baby c.) baby who is hard to classify d.) easy baby
a.) slow-to-warm baby
A theory of child rearing that is embedded in culture or ethnicity is a(n): a.) anthrotheory. b.) macro theory c.) micro theory d.) ethnotheory
Which specific area of the cortex in the brain is responsible for emotional self-regulation? a.) the anterior frontal lobes b.) the prefrontal cortex c.) the parietal lobes d.) the anterior cingulate gyrus
d.) the anterior cingulate gyrus
Jerome clings to his mother and can't be soothed when she returns. Jerome is exhibiting: a.) secure attachment. b.) insecure-resistant attachment. c.) insecure-avoidant attachment. d.) disoriented attachment.
b.) insecure-resistant attachment.
Regina is easily disturbed, unhappy, hard to distract, and emotionally tense. The New York Longitudinal Study researchers would say that Regina is: a.) typical. b.) difficult. c.) challenging. d.) experiencing asynchrony.
One clear difference between father-infant and mother-infant interactions is that: a.) babies find their mothers more fun. b.) babies seem to show more excitement for their fathers. c.) fathers foster insecure attachment. d.) fathers do not affect their babies' cognitive development.
b.) babies seem to show more excitement for their fathers.
Amy's mother has been struggling with postpartum depression since Amy's birth one year ago. Given this situation, Amy is at risk for developing which type of attachment? a.) disorganized b.) secure c.) insecure-avoidant d.) insecure-resistant/avoidant
The stimulation of one sense in the brain by a different sensation is known as: a.) sensory redundancy. b.) synesthesia. c.) synchrony. d.) hallucinations.
Coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called: a.) symbiosis. b.) psychosocialization. c.) synchrony. d.) Emily and Ryan are 18-month-old twins. Their mother has been drinking heavily since her husband left her when the twins were 6 weeks old. Emily and Ryan are likely to develop which type of attachment? a.) insecure-avoidant b.) secure c.) disorganized d.) insecure-resistant/avoidant
Attempting to eat spaghetti by trying to put a piece in the ears as well as in the mouth is typical of sensorimotor stage: a.) six b.) four c.) three d.) five
Piaget's stage six of sensorimotor intelligence is known as: a.) interesting observations. b.) mental combinations. c.) primary reactions. d.) new adaptation and anticipation.
b.) mental combinations
The Piagetian sensorimotor stages that involve the infant's responses to her own body are: a.) stages five and six. b.) stages one and two. c.) stages three and four. d.) stages one and three.
b.) stages one & two.
Jean Piaget was more interested in: a.) Jean Piaget was more interested in: b.) studying how children think. c.) how peers influence each other. d.) how parents discipline their children.
b.) studying how children think.
Research has found that "baby talk" is: a.) confined to females; males do not use it.