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Gravity
Ratios and Proportional Relationships
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (54)
ratio
A comparison of two quantities by division.
rate
A ratio comparing two quantities measured in different units.
fraction
a number that represents part of a whole or part of a set
decimal
A number with one or more digits to the right of a decimal point
percent
a ratio that compares a number to 100.
equivalent ratios
Ratios that express the same relationships between two quantities.
lcd
the smallest number, other than zero, that can be the denominator for two or more common fractions
proportion
An equation stating that two ratios or rates are equivalent.
percent proportion
One ratio or fraction that compares part of a quantity to the whole quantity. The other ratio is the equivalent percent written as a fraction with a denominator of 100.
part percent
---- = ------
whole 100
rational number
A number that can be written as a fraction where the denominator does not equal zero.
compatible numbers
Numbers that are easy to compute mentally.
product
the answer to a multiplication problem
sum
the answer to an addition problem
quotient
the answer to a division problem
divisor
A number by which another number is to be divided.
factor
a number that is multiplied by another number
greatest common factor (GCF)
The greatest of the common factors of two or more numbers
dividend
the number that is being divided
fraction
A number that represents part of a whole.
common factor
a number that is a factor of two more numbers
common multiple
a whole number that is a multiple of two or more numbers
denominator
The bottom number in a fraction
numerator
the top number in a fraction
equivalent fractions
Fractions that have the same value
estimate
An approximation of a number, based on reasonable assumptions.
improper fraction
A fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator
least common denominator (LCD)
The least common multiple of the denominators of two or more fractions
least common mutliple (LCM)
the smallest whole number greater than 0 that is a common multiple of each of two or more numbers
mutiple
the product of that number and any whole number
place value
The value of a digit based on its position within a number
prime factorization
Breaking down a composite number until all of the factors are prime
prime number
A whole number that has exactly two factors, 1 and itself.
proper fraction
a fraction with a numerator smaller than the denominator
simplest form
The lowest form of a fraction.
unit rate
A rate that is simplified so that it has a denominator of one.
coordinate plane
A plane in which a horizontal number line and a vertical number line intersect at their zero points.
origin
The point of intersection of the x-axis and y-axis on a coordinate plane.
X-Coordinate
The first number of an ordered pair. The x-coordinate corresponds to number on the x-axis.
Y-Coordinate
The second number of an ordered pair. The y-coordinate corresponds to number on the y-axis.
ordered pair
A pair of numbers used to locate a point on the coordinate plane. The ordered pair is written in the form (x-coordinate, y-coordinate).
reciprocal
Any two numbers that have a product of one.
integer
Any number from the set { . . . -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3 . . . }. (Counting numbers, their negative additive and zero).
negative integers
A number that is less than zero; written with -
absolute value
The distance between a number and zero on the number line.
opposites
Two integers are opposites if they are represented on the number line by points that are the same distance from zero, but on opposite sides of zero. The sum of two opposites is zero.
terminating decimal
A decimal is called terminating if its repeating decimal is zero.
quadrants
The four regions in a coordinate plane separated by the x-axis and y-axis.
exponent
In a power the number that tells how many times the base is used as a factor.
term
1. Each number in a sequence.
2. Each part of an algebraic expression separated by a plus or minus sign.
numerical expression
A combination of numbers and operations.
variable
a symbol, usually a letter, used to represent a number.
algebraic expression
A combination of variables, numbers and at least one operation.
evaluate
To find the value of an algebraic expression by replacing variables with numbers.
equation
A mathematical sentence showing two expressions are equal. An equation contains an equals sign. =
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