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81 terms

terminology: chapter 6

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antigen
substance that, when entering the body, prompts the generation of antibodies, causing an immune response
autoimmune
type of immune response by the body against its own cells or tissues
capillaries
microscopic blood vessels that connect the ends of the smallest arteries with the smallest veins of the circulatory system
hematopoiesis
production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
immune response
defense function of the body that protects it against invading pathogens, foreign tissues and malignancies
immunodeficiency
decreased or compromised ability to fight disease or a condition resulting from a defective immune mechanism
interstitial fluid
fluid between cells and in tissue spaces
lymphocyte
type of white blood cell found in the lymph nodes, spleen, bloodstream, and lymph that functions in the body's immune system by recognizing and deactivating foreign substances
monocytes
large white blood cells formed in the bone marrow that circulate in the bloodstream and destroys pathogenic bacteria through phagocytosis
oncology
branch of medicine concerned with the study of cancerous growths
pathogens
any microorganism capable of producing disease
transfusion
collection of blood or a blood component from a donor followed by its infusion into a recipient
hematology
study of the blood and blood-forming tissues and the diseases associated with these tissues
hematologists
treat malignant and nonmalignant blood diseases
immunologist
medical specialist who studies and treats the body's defense mechanism against invasion of foreign substances that cause disease
blood
composed of plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets; function is to transport oxygen and nutrients to cells and remove carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from cells
blood types
A, B, AB, O; based on the presence or absence of A or B antigens on the red blood cells; may also have Rh factors
lymphatic system
consists of lymph, vessels, nodes and the tonsils, thymus, and spleen; closely involved with the immune response; filters against foreign materials
agglutin/o
clumping, gluing
embo/o
embolus
erythyr/o
red
hem/o; hemat/o
blood
leuk/o
white
myel/o
bone marrow; spinal cord
thromb/o
blood clot
ven/o
vein
aden/o
gland
immun/o
immune, immunity, safe
lymph/o
lymph
lymphaden/o
lymph gland
lymphangi/o
lymph vessel
phag/o
swallowing, eating
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus gland
-emia
blood condition
-phage
swallowing, eating
-poiesis
formation, production
-stasis
standing still
macro-
large
micro-
small
mono-
one
anemia
blood disorder characterized by a deficiency of red blood cell production and hemoglobin, increased red blood cell destruction, or blood loss
aplastic
failure of bone marrow to produce stem cells because it has been damaged by disease, cancer, radiation, or chemotherapy drugs; rare but serious form of anemia
pernicious
deficiency of erythrocytes due to inability to absorb vitamin B-12 into the body, which plays a vital role in hematopoiesis
sickle cell
hereditary disorder of anemia characterized by crescent or sickle shaped erythrocytes; particularly prevalent among persons of african descent
thalassemia
group of hereditary anemias caused by an inability to produce hemoglobin; usually seen in people of mediterranean origin
hemophilia
group of hereditary bleeding disorders characterized by a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for coagulation of blood
leukemia
malignant disease of the bone marrow characterized by excessive production of leukocytes
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
deficiency of cellular immunity induced by infection with HIV, characterized by increasing susceptibility to infections, malignancies and neurological diseases
hodgkin disease
malignant disease characterized by painless, progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue, splenomegaly, and the presence of unique reed-sternberg cells in the lymph nodes
HIV
retrovirus that causes AIDS
immunodeficiency disease
any of a group of diseases caused by a defect in the immune system and generally characterized by a susceptibilty to infections and chronic diseases
kaposi sarcoma
malignancy of connective tissue, including bone, fat, muscle, and fibrous tissue that is commonly fatal because the tumors readily metastasize to various organs, and is closely associated with AIDS
lymphadenitis
inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually as a result of infection
lymphedema
debilitating condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a blockage in the lymphatic system that prevents lymph fluid in the upper limbs from draining adequately
mononucleosis
acute infection caused be the epstein-barr virus and characterized by a sore throat, fever, fatigue and enlarged lymph nodes
multiple myeloma
malignant disease of bone marrow plasma cells
non-hodgkin lymphoma
any of a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue except for hodgkin disease
opportunistic infection
any infection that results from a defective immune system that cannot defend against pathogens normally found in the environment
stroke
sudden loss of neurological function, caused by vascular injury to an area of the brain; also known as CVA
systemic lupus erythematosus
chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with variable features that affect many body systems, particularly the skin, kidneys, heart and lungs
bone marrow aspiration
removal of a small amount of tissue to diagnose blood disorders, cancer, or infectious disease or to gather cells for later infusion into a patient
ELISA
test to screen blood for presence of HIV antibodies or for other disease causing substances
lymphangiography
radiographic examination of lymph glands and lymphatic vessels after an injection of a contrast medium to view the path of lymph flow as it moves into the chest region
tissue typing
technique used to determine the histocompatibility of tissues; used in grafts and transplants with the recipient's tissues and cells; aka histocompatibility testing
western blot
test to detect presence of viral DNA in the blood and used to confirm the diagnosis of AIDS as well as detecting other viruses
blood transfusion
administration of whole blood or a component, such as packed red cells, to replace blood lost through trauma, surgery, or disease
bone marrow transplant
diseased bone marrow is destroyed by irradiation and chemotherapy, then replaced from a healthy donor to simulate production of normal blood cells; used to treat aplastic anemia, leukemia, and certain cancers
lymphangiectomy
removal of a lymph vessel
anticoagulants
prevent or delay blood coagulation
immunizations
vaccinations or injection of immune globulins to induce immunity to a particular infectious disease
immunosuppressants
suppress the immune response to prevent organ rejection after transplantation or slow the progression of autoimmune disease
thrombolytics
dissolve a blood clot
vaccinations
introduction of altered antigens into the body to produce an immune response and protect against disease
antitretroviral
medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV
CD4
glycoprotein expressed on the surface of T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells
dyspnea
shortness of breath
hemoglobin
iron-containing oxygen-transport protein in the red blood cells
platelets
small, irregularly shaped clear cell fragments that gather at a wound and attempt to block the blood flow
sputum
mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways
pneumocystis pneumonia
form of pneumonia, caused by a yeast-like fungus; especially seen in people with cancer, HIV/AIDS and those who use medications that affect the immune system