Scholars believe that Paleo-Indians migrated from Asia into North America:

a. in search of a disease-free environment
b. in response to global warming
c. beginning about a thousand years ago
d. to escape tribal warfare in Asia
e. in pursuit of large game animals


Thousands of years after people first appeared in North America:

a. climatic changes and extensive hunting had increased the large mammal population
b. global warming increased grasslands
c. climatic changes and extensive hunting had killed off the large mammal population
d. the environment remained basically unchanged
e. global warming decreased forest growth


From A.D. 300 to 900, which group in Middle America (Mesoamerica) developed large cities, including gigantic pyramids?

a. Mayas
b. Incas
c. Caribs
d. Pueblos
e. Aztecs


The Aztecs:

a. succumbed to the Toltecs around A.D. 900
b. absorbed the Mayas around 1425
c. were a peaceful, nomadic people
d. were the most advanced example of the Adena-Hopewell culture
e. had an empire of perhaps five million people in Mexico


Which of the following would NOT characterize the Mississippi Indian culture?

a. ceremonial human torture and sacrifice
b. cultivation of corn, beans, and squashes
c. towns built around plazas and temples
d. extensive trading activities
e. cliff dwellings and widespread use of irrigation


All of the following are true of the Anasazis EXCEPT that they:

a. engaged in warfare only for self-defense
b. lived in the Southwest
c. were transformed by the arrival of horses
d. were threatened by a prolonged drought
e. lacked a rigid class structure


The importance of the Vikings in New World history is limited because:

a. they were far more successful in Greenland
b. they had hostile relations with the Indians
c. other Europeans arrived here first
d. they were such a violent people
e. their Newfoundland settlements were not long-lasting


Ancient Greeks:

a. knew that the world was round
b. knew of the riches of China and Japan
c. knew of the existence of the New World
d. used printing presses
e. measured longitude at sea


The extensive lands controlled by Muslims:

a. were forfeited with the success of the Crusades
b. hindered European trade routes to Asia
c. lessened European interest in spices from Asia
d. included France and Holland
e. made many Christians begin to doubt their faith


By 1492, united kingdoms in western Europe included all of the following EXCEPT:

a. Italy
b. France
c. Portugal
d. England
e. Spain


In 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain did all of the following EXCEPT:

a. begin to build an overseas empire
b. capture Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in Spain
c. unite Spain and Portugal under one crown
d. force Jews to either convert or leave Spain
e. sponsor Columbus's first voyage across the Atlantic


The first Europeans to sail around Africa and on to India were the:

a. Portuguese
b. Irish
c. English
d. Italians
e. Spaniards


On his first voyage, Columbus:

a. ensured that he would be wealthy for life
b. explored a number of Caribbean islands
c. landed on the mainland of North America
d. realized he had discovered a new world
e. expressed his kind intentions toward the Indians


Columbus succeeded in:

a. bringing the benefits of European civilization to the Indians
b. finding a water route to Asia
c. inspiring subsequent European explorations
d. proving the world was round
e. finding rich sources of rubies and diamonds


Which of the following foods did Europeans introduce to the New World?

a. beans
b. corn
c. rice
d. potatoes
e. squash


Food crops exported from the Americas:

a. allowed a worldwide population explosion
b. included the meat of cattle and pigs
c. made Spain the most powerful nation in Europe
d. were more valuable to Europeans than gold or silver
e. included commodities like rice and wheat previously unknown in Europe


After the arrival of Europeans, the greatest number of Indians died as a result of:

a. disease
b. battle
c. starvation
d. enslavement
e. depression


John Cabot's crossing of the Atlantic in 1497 resulted in his:

a. making landfall in present-day Canada
b. sailing around the tip of South America
c. sighting of the Pacific
d. discovery of a shortcut to China
e. exploration of Florida


In most cases, Spanish explorers and soldiers who came to the New World were motivated by all of the following EXCEPT:

a. pursuit of riches
b. desire for power
c. religious zeal
d. desire to serve their fellow man
e. patriotism


The main Aztec god, Huitzilopochtli:

a. was ultimately repudiated by Montezuma
b. caused the Aztecs to live at peace with their neighbors
c. had many similarities to Jesus
d. required a constant offering of human blood
e. was usually depicted as a woman


One of the major factors in Cortés's defeat of the Aztecs was:

a. the absence of a true Aztec civilization
b. a drought that ruined Aztec agriculture
c. the pacifistic nature of Aztec society
d. the large size of his army
e. superior weapons technology


During Cortés's siege of Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs were especially weakened by:

a. the death of Montezuma
b. cannon fire
c. smallpox
d. a series of natural disasters
e. a crisis of religious faith


The encomienda system:

a. allowed Mayan and Incan leaders to become very wealthy through the labor of their people
b. was replicated by the English in their later New World colonies
c. allowed privileged Spanish landowners to control Indian villages
d. benefited the Native American populations of Spanish America
e. kept the Portuguese out of Mexico


By the seventeenth century, the Indian population in Spain's New World empire had decreased by about:

a. 90 percent
b. 50 percent
c. 5 percent
d. 10 percent
e. 25 percent


The government of Spain in the New World differed from that of the later British colonies in that:

a. Spaniards were more likely to settle as families
b. Spain completely uprooted the native cultures it encountered
c. Spain permitted a greater degree of self-government in its colonies
d. there was less bureaucracy associated with the government of the Spanish colonies
e. every detail of colonial administration was closely regulated by the Spanish king


Spanish explorers of North America such as Narvaez, de Soto, and Coronado:

a. converted lots of Indians to Christianity
b. added to the knowledge of the continent's interior
c. journeyed as far north as current-day Canada
d. found large deposits of gold and silver
e. established numerous permanent settlements


In 1565, the first European town was established in the current-day United States at:

a. St. Augustine
b. Jamestown
c. Plymouth
d. Santa Fe
e. San Antonio


The presidios established by the Spaniards in the Southwest housed:

a. ranchers
b. settlers
c. explorers
d. soldiers
e. missionaries


Which is NOT true of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680?

a. Indians forced the Spaniards to temporarily retreat.
b. Indians attacked numerous churches and priests.
c. It was led by an Indian named Popé.
d. It led the Spaniards to immediately colonize Texas and California.
e. It occurred in New Mexico.


The introduction of horses to Plains tribes:

a. made them less nomadic
b. bettered the lives of their women
c. replaced dogs as beasts of burden
d. lessened their dependence on bison
e. minimally altered the ecology of the Great Plains


Horses became so valuable in North America they:

a. were rarely used for hunting due to the dangers involved
b. were worshipped as gods
c. intensified intertribal competition and warfare
d. became the sole responsibility of men
e. were very hard to purchase


The Protestant Reformation was launched in Europe by:

a. Henry VIII
b. Charles V of Spain
c. Martin Luther
d. John Calvin
e. Isaac Newton


A central element of John Calvin's theology was his belief in:

a. papal infallibility
b. the basic truth of all religions
c. salvation through good works
d. infant baptism
e. predestination


The Protestant Reformation in England:

a. led to the overthrow of Henry VIII
b. was led by John Calvin
c. occurred more for political reasons than because of disagreement about religious doctrine
d. was almost undone when Elizabeth tried to reimpose Catholicism
e. occurred prior to the Reformation in Germany


During Queen Elizabeth's reign:

a. her subjects gained true religious freedom
b. England became militarily weak and politically unstable
c. some Calvinists separated from the Church of England
d. Catholicism again became the official religion
e. archbishops and bishops were eliminated in the Church of England


The Dutch "Sea Beggars" and English "sea dogges" were essentially:

a. explorers
b. deep-sea fishermen
c. slave traders
d. pirates
e. missionaries


The Spanish Armada:

a. was destroyed by a storm before it left Spain
b. was a treasure fleet attacked by the English
c. caused Spain to give up New World colonization as a result of its defeat
d. attempted to invade England
e. broke English naval power for a century


A major reason for the defeat of the Spanish Armada was:

a. storms in the North Sea
b. the greater size of the English vessels
c. Elizabeth's brilliance as a naval strategist
d. the incompetence of the Spanish captains
e. inaccurate Spanish maps and compasses


Which country did Sir Walter Raleigh argue should establish colonies in the New World?

a. Holland
b. England
c. Spain
d. Portugal
e. France


The English attempt to establish a colony on Roanoke Island resulted in:

a. a severe blow to Spanish power
b. a severe blow to English power
c. a permanent English presence in North America
d. the disappearance of the colonists
e. the execution of Sir Walter Raleigh


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