80 terms

CHAP 6 REVIEW: CONGRESS

• Separation of powers and checks and balances in practice • Knowledge of the legislative branch
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Bicameral legislature
A legislature composed of two separate chambers (the Senate and the House of Representatives) (Pg. 143)
Congressional district
A geographic region (either a state itself or a region located entirely within one state) whose residents select one member to represent it in the House of Representatives (Pg. 145)
Reapportionment
The allocation (assignment) of a fixed number of House seats to the states (Pg. 145)
Redistricting
The act of redrawing congressional boundary lines to achieve equal representation in each of the congressional districts; redrawing congressional district lines to achieve the "one person, one vote" principle within the borders of the state (Pg. 145)
Gerrymandering
The drawing of House district boundaries to the benefit of one political party over another. The term is named for Elbridge Gerry, a Massachusetts delegate to the Constitutional Convention, who (as governor) redrew districts in this fashion to favor the Democratic-Republicans (Pg. 145)
Majority caucus
The members of the party that has the majority of seats in a particular chamber (Pg. 147)
Minority caucus
The members of the party that has a minority of seats in a particular chamber (Pg. 147)
Speaker of the House
The leader of the House of Representatives, responsible for assigning new bills to committees, recognizing members to speak in the House chamber, and assigning chairs of committees (Pg. 147)
Majority Leader
In the Senate, the controlling party's main spokesperson who leads his or her party in proposing new laws and crafting the party's platform. The Senate majority leader also enjoys the power to make committee assignments. In the House, the majority leader is the controlling party's second in command, who helps the Speaker to oversee the development of the party platform (Pg. 148)
Minority Leader
The leader of the minority party in each chamber (Pg. 148)
Whip (majority and minority)
Members of Congress elected by his or her party to count potential votes and promote party unity in voting (Pg. 148)
President Pro Tempore
In the absence of the vice president, the senator who presides (be in the position of authority in meeting) over the Senate session. By tradition, this is usually the senator from the majority caucus who has served the longest number of consecutive years in the Senate (Pg. 148)
Bill
A proposed law presented for consideration to a legislative body (Pg. 150)
Standing committee
A permanent committee that exists in both the House and Senate; most standing committees focus on a particular substantive area of public policy, such as transportation, labor, foreign affairs, and the federal budget (Pg. 151)
Reporting legislation
The exclusive power of standing committees to forward legislation to the full House or Senate. Neither chamber can vote on a bill unless the committee votes to approve it first (Pg. 151)
Select committee
A committee established by a resolution either the House or the Senate for a specific purpose, and usually, for a limited time / A special committee established to examine a particular issue of concern. Once their work is done, they are dissolved (not permanent) (Pg. 152)
Conference committee
A joint committee of Congress appointed by the House of Representatives and the Senate to resolve differences on a particular bill (Pg. 152)
Joint committee
A committee composed of members of both the House and the Senate that is investigative in nature (Pg. 153)
Congressional personal staff
A group of workers who assist an individual member of Congress in performing his or her responsibilities (Pg. 153)
Congressional committee staff
A group of workers assigned to congressional committees to support each committee's legislative work (Pg. 154)
Congressional agencies
Government bodies formed by and relied on by Congress to support members of Congress in performing their functions (Pg. 154)
Rules Committee
A committee in the House of Representatives that determines the rules by which bills will come to the floor, be debated, the amount of time that will be allotted for debate and so on (Pg. 158)
Closed rule
A rule of procedure adopted by the House Rules Committee that severely limits the ability of members of Congress to amend (revise) a bill (Pg. 158)
Open rule
A rule of procedure adopted by the House Rules Committee that permits amendments to a bill (Pg. 158)
Filibuster
The action by a single senator or a minority of senators to block a bill from passage by refusing to end discussion (Pg. 158)
Cloture
A Senate debate procedure that permits that body (the Senate) to end debate and force a vote on a bill by a vote of 60 senators (or approval of a two-thirds vote (Pg. 158)
Logrolling
Members often enter into an agreement with other members to vote a certain way on one bill in exchange for a favorable vote on another bill / The trading of influence or votes among legislators to achieve passage of projects that are of interest to one another (Pg. 159)
Veto
The constitutional procedure by which the president refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law / President can refuse to approve the bill which stops it from becoming law (Pg. 160)
Overriding a veto
The power of the Congress to enact legislation despite a president's veto of that legislation; requires a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress (Pg. 160)
Pocket veto
The indirect veto of a bill received by the president within 10 days of the adjournment of Congress, effected by the president's retaining the bill unsigned until Congress adjourns

If Congress passes a bill and sends it to the president within 10 days of the end of a congressional session and the president does not act on the bill, then the bill does not become law (Pg. 160)
Casework
The direct assistance that a member of Congress provides to a constituent, community group, or a local or state official (Pg. 164)
Pork-barrel legislation
A government project that yields jobs or other benefits to a specific locale and support opportunities to its political representative /

The federal budget includes a great deal of money for local project (such as parks, damns and road improvements). Members secure federal funds to support these projects in their states and districts /

"Bringing home the bacon" (Pg. 166)
The two ways in which the House of Representatives "directly connects voter sentiment with popular representation":
The House should have an immediate dependence on and an intimate sympathy with, the people" (Pg. 144)

The constitutional requirement that the number of representatives from each state be proportional to each state's population
Term limit for a US Representative:
Two years
Total number of seats/Representatives in the US House today:
435 (Pg. 145)
Understand the process of reapportionment - its relationship to the US census and the principle of "one person one vote":
The number of people who are represented in a congressional district is tied to a number that changes every census. Since fixing the number of seats at 435, Congress has struggled to find an equitable way to distribute House seats to the states. The basic principle that guides the process of reapportionment after every census, the "one person, one vote" principle. According to the principle, the population size of congressional districts must be as equal as possible (Pg. 145)
The rough number of people per congressional district:
650,000 (Pg. 145)
Understand the relationship between reapportionment and redistricting:
The Constitution requires that a new census of the population be taken every 10 years, which is used to reapportion seats in the House of Representative to each state. The states are then responsible for redistricting congressional boundary lines to achieve equal representation in each of the districts; that is redrawing congressional district lines to achieve the "one person, one vote" principle within the borders of the state (Pg. 145)
The Constitutional qualifications to be eligible to serve as a US Representative:
Be at least 25 years old, have been a US citizen for a minimum of 7 years, and live in the state (not necessarily the congressional district) from which they are elected
The significance of the 17th Amendment to the US Senate:
Before the 17th Amendment was adopted, senators were chose by the State legislatures, It wasn't until 1913, with the passage of the 17 Amendment, the US senators were directly elected by the people (Pg. 145)
Term limit for a US Senator:
Six years, three times the length of that for a House member (Pg. 146)

Minimum age is 30, must have been a citizen for at least 9 years, and be a resident of the state that he or she represents
Number of Senators from each state, and total number of Senators in the US Senate:
2 senators from each state and 100 total number of senators in the US Senate (Pg. 146)
The "principle factor driving leadership" in the US House and US Senate, according to the text:
The political party system (Democratic or Republican)
(Pg. 147)
The political parties currently controlling the US House and the US Senate, as a result of the 2012 elections:
Republican (Pg. 147)
The only House leadership position mentioned in the US Constitution, and the article in which it is contained:
Speaker of the House (Pg. 147)
Why the Speaker of the House is powerful, according to the text:
Joe Cannon (made the Speaker more powerful than it used to be)
As the person responsible for assigning new bills to committees, the Speaker can delay the assignment of a bill or assign it to a committee that is either friendly or hostile to its contents, a power that gives the Speaker control over much of the House agenda. 2nd, the Speaker has the ability to recognize members to speak in the House chamber. Because an important part of the legislative process involves members debating bills on the House floor, the Speaker's authority over this process is significant. 3rd, the Speaker is the ultimate authority and interpreter of House rules. The ability to give final judgment on a rule of order can make or break a piece of legislation. 4th, the Speaker appoints members to serve on special committees, including conference committees. 5th, the Speaker plays an influential role in assigning members to particular permanent committees (some committees are more important than others) Also, the Speaker also hand picks the nine members of all-important Rules committee. Lastly, the Speaker has ultimate authority to schedule votes in the full House on a bill, it allows the Speaker to speed the process or delay it (Pg. 147)
Role and responsibilities of the Majority and Minority Leaders in the US House:
These leaders oversee the development of their party platforms and are responsible for achieving party coherence in voting (Pg. 148)
Role and responsibilities of the Majority and Minority Whips in the US House:
Whips report to their respective party leaders in the House and are primarily responsible for counting up the partisan votes on bills, they contact members of their party caucus and try to convince them to vote the way their party leadership wants them to vote

They spend much of their time on the floor of the House, on the phone, or in the offices of their party colleagues, counting votes & urging members to vote the party line on bills (Pg. 148/149)
US Senate leadership outlined in the Constitution:
The vice president / 'president of the Senate'. The president of the Senate cannot engage in debate on the floor of the Senate and has no legislative duties in the Senate, with one exception: to cast a vote in the Senate in the event of a tie
(Pg. 148)
The other office held by the President of the Senate:
The president pro tempore (Pg. 148) ???
Understand the role and responsibilities of the President of the Senate:
To cast a vote in the Senate in the event of a tie
The custom that determines who will hold the position of President Pro Tempore in the US Senate:
The senator in the majority caucus who has served the longest number of consecutive years in the Senate
Role and responsibilities of the Senate Majority and Minority Leaders:
They are the main party spokesperson in the Senate, lead their party caucuses in proposing new laws, and are the chief architects of their party's platform (Pg. 149)
Special responsibility held by the Senate Majority Leader:
Making assignments to leadership of committees
Understand that leadership in the US Senate "is principally a function of partisanship," and the power exercised by the majority leadership:
Controls the agenda and mobilizing majority votes on important issues for the party (Pg. 149)
Understand the role and responsibilities of the Majority and Minority Whips in the Senate:
They keep track of how caucus members are planning to vote on upcoming bills, and they communicate the positions of party leaders on upcoming legislative votes
Which chamber's leadership has less power, and why:
Leaders in the Senate generally have far less power than their counterparts in the House. Why? The smaller number of senators requires less discipline in membership, and the culture of the Senate includes a greater amount of respect from one senator to another. Because there are fewer rules and formal procedures in the Senate, leaders and rule-making members have less power to control debate in that body
Understand that the "bulk" of legislative work occurs in House and Senate committees:
Generating ideas for new laws, debating the merits of those ideas, holding hearings, conducting investigations, listening to the testimony of experts, offering modifications and additions to proposed bills & giving important advice to all House and Senate members regarding how they should vote on a new bill (Pg. 150)
Understand the type of work that occurs in Senate and House committees:
Members fulfill their role of oversight of federal agencies, ex: voting. To manage the workload, both chambers of Congress rely on a committee system. In both the House and Senate, each member is assigned to a few committees and becomes an expert in the subject area of the committee. Most of members' legislative work revolves around the committees to which they are assigned (Pg. 150)
Understand the four different types of committees in Congress:
http://quizlet.com/58014959/4-types-of-congressional-committees-flash-cards/

http://quizlet.com/56433474/4-types-of-committees-in-congress-flash-cards/

-Standing committees: permanent committees in the House and Senate. They focus on a particular area of public policy such as transportation, labor, foreign affairs and the federal budget. Reporting legislation. Deals with permanent legislative concern. Most common.

-Select committee: Special committee established to examine a particular issue of concern. They do not have power to report legislation and are not permanent. Often formed to deal with a particularly serious nation problem (ex: illegal immigration/national drug problem)

-Conference committee: consist both House members and senators who work together to iron out differences in the House & Senate versions of a bill

-Joint Committee: consists of members from both the House & Senate. Do not propose legislation and have no reporting power. Investigative in nature, focusing on issues of general concern. Are typically permanent and focus on broader policy areas (Pg. 151)
Understand the "most significant power of the standing committee," and why it is a significant power:
Reporting legislation; The full House or Senate cannot vote on a bill unless the committee votes to approve it first. No other type of congressional committee has the power to report legislation

Reporting legislation so that the full House and Senate can vote on it
Understand the process a bill usually goes through in a House or Senate standing committee:
Before the House of Representatives or the Senate can vote on any bill,

-It must first be approved by a majority of members on the committee. (A number of factors can affect a committee's consideration of a bill, which can slow down the process of a bill becoming law and creates "legislative gridlock")

-When a committee gets a new bill, the chair usually directs the bill to a subcommittee.

-The subcommittee discusses the bill, hold hearings, and makes changes, additions or deletions to the bill. After a successful subcommittee vote, the bill moves back to the full committee, where additional debate & hearings might happen.

-After a successful committee vote is the bill ready to be considered by the full House and/or Senate (Pg. 151)
Table 6.1 - Understand the standing committees found in the US House and the US Senate
.
Understand the role and function of the conference committee in the US lawmaking process:
The House and Senate are equal players in the legislative process. They both can debate, hold hearings on, comment on, and vote on individual pieces of legislation. A bill is then considered, modified, and voted on by both the House and the Senate. Assuming a bill survives both chambers & passes, it is likely that the changes made to the bill during the standing committee process will differ between the House & Senate. Conference committees consist of both House members & senators who work together to iron out differences in the House & Senate versions of a bill
Understand why the chairs of standing committees "have a great deal of power in determining what gets done and when it gets done," as well as the relationship of the committee chair to the majority party:
Committees are where Congress gets most of its work done. For example, the chairs decide how much time to spend on a new bill; they choose the people who will testify before the committee; and they allot the time to be spent on a testimony & committee discussion.

For each committee, the majority party's ranking, or senior member is typically the person who becomes the committee chair (Pg. 153)
Understand how and why the "primary organizational characteristic of most committees in Congress is partisanship":
The large number in standing committees & subcommittees disperses (scatter) legislative power. It is in the interest of the majority party, to control what bills are given priority, how bills are written & what bills get passed.
To control committee agenda and the committee votes, the majority caucus ensures that all committees have a majority of members of their party. The chair of each committee is from the majority caucus (Pg. 153)
Understand what kind of legislative proposals must be introduced by the US House, and why:
Before proposed legislation may be referred to a committee for hearings and debate, it must be introduced by a sponsor in Congress (???) House of Representatives because it's the people's house
Figure 6.2 - understand the process by which a bill becomes law (Pg. 156)
.
Understand the five steps in the process of how a bill becomes law:
1. (Introduction)
A bill is introduced. It must originate in the House of Representatives, a bill can be first introduced into either the Senate or the House. Although the idea of bills come from a variety of sources. Many come from the president or someone in the president's office or excutive branch of government. Or lobbyists, business leaders, educators, journalists, & regular constituents. The next step for those with a suggestion for a new law is to find a sponsor in the House or Senate to introduce the idea in the form of a bill

2. Standing Committee for Action (Committee action)
The next step in the process requires the bill to be assigned to the standing committee that has policy jurisdiction over the topic the bill addresses. If they give the bill serious consideration, the committee chair usually assigns it to a subcommittee. The subcommittee may hold hearings, conduct investigations, and deliberate on the merits of the bll. When a bill is back in full committee, the commendations of the subcommitttee maybe accepted, rejected or further revised. The full committee may conduct additional hearings, call more experts to testify & debate the bill. At the end of this process, a "markup" or final version of the bill is prepared. The markup is the proposed legislation on which the full committee will vote, if majority votes against the bill it goes no further. If majority vote in favor, it moves forward in process

3. Bill goes to the full House and Senate for Consideration (Floor action)
The full House or Senate debates the bill and proposes amendments. The process differs between the House & Senate.
In the House: a bill that makes it through the committee is immediately assigned to the House Rules Committee. The Rules Committee decides when the bill will be debated, the amount of time for debate, and the extent to which amendments may be added from the floor of the House. The ability to control timing is significant. If the Rules Committee issues a closed rule, House members are limited in their ability to amend the bill. An open rule, permits amendments to the bill.

In Senate: there are no rules set up ahead of time for debate. The Senate majority leader decides when to bring a bill to the floor, but there are no limits on the amount of time the bill will be debated. With no rules on how long a senator might speak, there is a possibility that a minority of senators or even one senator might try to block a bill from passed by refusing to end discussion, a process known as a filibuster.
(Pg. 158)

4. Conference Committee Action (when the version of a bill that passes Senate differs from the House one, to iron out differences, they select a confernce committee to work out the kink)
The conference committee consists of House and Senate members, usually drawn from the standing committees that worked on the bills (Pg. 159)

5. President Action
The president plays an informal and formal role in the passage of new laws.
Informal role: to develop new ideas for laws & urge members of Congress to introduce them. Also lobbies Congress attempting to persuade members to support or oppose certain bills.

Formal role: is the fifth step in the process by which a bill becomes a law. Once both chambers of Congress have agreed to a bill, the bill is sent to the president for action. The president has three options,
1st, the president can sign the bill, which officially makes it new law
2nd, the president can veto (or refuse assent to) the bill, which stops the bill from becoming law. If bill is vetoed, Congress has one more opportunity to pass the bill by overriding the president veto, which requires a two-thirds vote in favor of passage in both Senate & the House.
3rd, the president can decide not to act on a bill (neither sign it nor veto it) in which case the bill automatically becomes law after it has sat on the president's desk for 10 days. If Congress passes a bill and sends it to the president within 10 days of the end of a congressional session and the president does not act on the bill, the bill does NOT become law, a process known as pock veto (Pg. 160)
The "variety of sources" that might provide an idea for a new bill:
The president or someone in the president's office or executive branch of government. Lobbyists. Business leaders, educators, journalists and regular constituents (Pg. 156)
Understand everything that might happen to a bill once it reaches committee:
Most bills die during their initial consideration by the committee. Some cases, the committee chair sits on the bill & ignores it. Other cases the full committee, votes to kill the bill. If the committee decides to give the bill serious consideration, the committee chair usually assigns it to a subcommittee. Often the subcommittee will make amendments to the bill before sending it back. When its back in full committee, the recommendations may be accepted, rejected or further revised. May conduct addition experts to testify and debate bill. At the end, a "markup" or final version of the bill is prepared. The markup is the proposed legislation on which the full committee will vote. If majority members vote against, the bill goes no further (another point the bill can be stopped) If majority members vote in favor, the bill moves forward in the process (Pg. 157)
Understand what happens to a bill in the US House once it makes it out of committee:
Immediately assigned to the House Rules Committee. They decide when the bill will be debated, amount of time for debate and which amendments may be added from the floor of the House (Pg. 158)
Understand how the process of rules differ between the Senate and the House, and how this affects debate on a bill and amendments that can be attached to a bill:
(Rules committee) for the House: decides when the bill will be debated & the amount of time given for debate, & the what amendments may be added. The ability to control timing & amount of time for debate is important. They also have the ability to control the amendment process, if they issue a closed rule, House members are severely limited in their ability to amend the bill
If they issue an open rule, it permits amendments to the bill.

Senate: there are no rules set up for debate. The Senate majority leader decided when to bring a bill to the floor but there are no limits on the amount of time the bill will be debated. With no rules on how long a senator might speak, there is a possibility minority of senators or one senator might try to block a bill from passage by refusing to end discussion (filibuster)
At the end of the debate and amendment process, the House and Senate take vote on the proposed bill. Passage of a bill must achieve a majority of votes (half of all present in voting, plus one) from members on the floor. Majority votes must be achieve in both the Senate and House for the bill to survive to the next step in the legislative process. (Pg. 158)
Why cloture was established in the Senate, and the loophole around it:
In 1917, a group of senators successfully filibustered to prevent a bill that would have armed American ships in anticipation of the nation's entry into World War I.
In response to this event, Senate adopted a cloture rule, which permits the Senate to end debate and force a vote on a bill by approval of a two-thirds vote. Loophole to this, any senator, once properly recognized, refuses to concede to the floor, he or she can exercise the equivalent of a one person filibuster for as long as his or her voice will hold out.
The current vote required to invoke cloture and end debate in the US Senate:
Three-fifths (3/5) vote is required to end debate
Understand the six explanations on how a member of Congress may vote on a bill:
1. Personal opinion & judgment. Many members of Congress have strong personal opinions on issues and cast their votes on bills based on those opinions. (Ex: Pro-life vs Abortions)
2. Constituent opinion. Members of Congress want to be liked by their constituents and most want to be reelected. In voting on particular bills, members often use results of polls, editorial commentary in local media and letters written to them to help make up their minds in voting on a particular bill. When they use a constituent opinion in casting a vote, they are exercising their role as a "delegate" of the people they represent
3. Interest groups and lobbying. As a way of achieving their goals, interest groups exert influence on congressional voting in many ways, including making contributions to congressional campaigns & hiring lobbyists to provide arguments to members regarding why they should vote a particular way on a bill. Members use both information provided by lobbyists to aid in their voting & the campaign support from interest groups to prompt how they will vote.
4. Political party. The party of a member often conveys quite a bit about his/her political positions & ideology. Party membership is an important cue. The leadership of each party is organized to influence party members to vote the "party line" on bills. Members voting w/ their party tend to be rewarded with better committee assignments & greater campaign funding
5. The president. Presidents are the focus of national attention. Presidents are influential in directing congressional members of their own party how to vote but often exert influence on members of the opposite party as well.
6. Logrolling. Members often enter into an agreement with other members to vote a certain way on one bill in exchange for a favorable vote on another bill. Process is known as logrolling. Members vote on thousands of bills every term. Giving up a vote on less important bills in exchange for favorable votes on more important bills is common practice and often guides congressional voting behavior (Pg. 158)
Understand the US president's informal and formal role in a bill becoming law:
Informal role: to develop new ideas for laws & urge members of Congress to introduce them. Also lobbies Congress attempting to persuade members to support or oppose certain bills.
Formal role: is the fifth step in the process by which a bill becomes a law. Once both chambers of Congress have agreed to a bill, the bill is sent to the president for action. The president has three options,
1st, the president can sign the bill, which officially makes it new law
2nd, the president can veto (or refuse assent to) the bill, which stops the bill from becoming law. If bill is vetoed, Congress has one more opportunity to pass the bill by overriding the president veto, which requires a two-thirds vote in favor of passage in both Senate & the House.
3rd, the president can decide not to act on a bill (neither sign it nor veto it) in which case the bill automatically becomes law after it has sat on the president's desk for 10 days. If Congress passes a bill and sends it to the president within 10 days of the end of a congressional session and the president does not act on the bill, the bill does NOT become law, a process known as pock veto (Pg. 160)
Understand the "four other important constitutional functions" that Congress
undertakes in addition to the lawmaking process:
Oversight of federal agencies:
Sometimes Congress prefers not to deal with issues on its own, but rather "pass the buck" to a bureaucratic agency. Congress often delegates more specific legislative authority to the executive branch, which has the resources and expertise to make more highly technical policy decisions. They monitor the activities of agencies & administrators who are given this power through congressional oversight.

Confirmation of top federal executive & judges:
The president nominates individuals for the roles of cabinet officers, other agency & executive branch heads, federal judges and foreign ambassadors. But the Senate must consent to the nomination with a majority vote in favor of the candidate. This function is one performed soley by the US Senate and not the House of Representatives.

Approval of treaties:
The Senate has the power to approve treaties that the president negotiates with foreign countries. Approval of a treaty requires the consent of two-thirds of the Senate.

Impeachment of top federal executive and judges
Congress has the authority to impeach and remove federal judges, cabinet officers, the president, the vice president and other civil officers. The removal process requires an impeachment action from the House and a trial in the Senate. Impeachment is the formal process by which the House brings charges against federal officials. A judge, president or executive official who is "impeached" by the House i not removed; he/she is charged with an offense. An impeachment occurs by a majority vote in the House of Representatives. An official may be impeached by the House on more than one charge, each of which is referred to as an article of impeachment. If the House passes at least one article of impeachment, the official must stand trial in the Senate.
Two-thirds vote of a full Senate is required for removal of an official (Pg. 161)
Understand the House and Senate's role in the impeachment and removal from office process:
Congress has the authority to impeach and remove federal judges, cabinet officers, the president, the vice president and other civil officers. The removal process requires an impeachment action from the House and a trial in the Senate. Impeachment is the formal process by which the House brings charges against federal officials. A judge, president or executive official who is "impeached" by the House i not removed; he/she is charged with an offense. An impeachment occurs by a majority vote in the House of Representatives. An official may be impeached by the House on more than one charge, each of which is referred to as an article of impeachment. If the House passes at least one article of impeachment, the official must stand trial in the Senate.
Two-thirds vote of a full Senate is required for removal of an official (Pg. 161)
Understand the importance of casework:
Its electoral importance to members of Congress. Casework raises visibility of members in their home state or district, which reflects positively on how well the member is regarded and gives members an advantage over their opponents in elections. More than 9 in 10 House & Senate members who run for reelection are returned to office and effectively managing casework is an important reasons for this high return rate.

It has become an implied responsibility of members to help their constituents navigate the complex federal bureaucracy. Federal programs are complex and constituents are often overwhelmed in their efforts to obtain the benefits for which they are eligible. Ex: finding programs for displaced workers to help them obtain training in new skills necessary for the new workforce.
These programs is often difficult and members provide informatin to connect constituents with available programs.

Casework provides a direct connection between members and their constituents. It requires members to keep in touch with whom they represent, Ex: giving a speech to local league of women voters meeting, showing up to cut the ribbon at an opening of a new school (Pg. 164)