Glencoe Health Chapter 10

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environmental influences on dietfamily and culture, friends, time and money, advertising5 ways your body needs nutrientsenergy source, heal build and repair tissue, sustain growth, transport oxygen cells regulate body function6 types of nutrientscarbs, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water3 energy providing nutrientscarbs, proteins, fats3 other nutrientsvitamins minerals water3 sources of energy in foodcarbs, proteins, fatseach gram of carb/protein4 calories of energyeach gram of fatnine calories of energycarbohydratesstarches and sugars found in foods, which provide body's main source of energydaily percentage of carbs45-65%3 types of carbssimple, complex, fiber2 simple sugarsfructose (in fruits), lactose (in milk)complex carbsstarches, long chains of connected sugarscommon complex carbsgrain, pasta, beans, root vegetablesfibertough complex carb that the body can't digest (moves waste through system)eating fibersreduce risk of cancer, heart disease, diabetesdaily grams of fiber recommended20-35good sources of fiberfruits, veggies, whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumesrole of carbsstored as main source of body's tissuebenefits of fiberaids digestion, reduces risk of diseaserequested daily grams of fiber-teen girls26requested daily grams of fiber-teen boys38proteinsnutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues, made of amino acidsyour body produces all but nine (amino acids)all but nine amino acidsrole of proteinsbuilding material of cells (good for building muscle)teen boys proteins per day52teen girls proteins per day46unsaturated fatsvegetable oils, nuts, seedssaturated fatsmostly in meat, dairy products, and plant oils (coconut/palm)Trans fatfats formed by hydrogenationrole of fats-provide form of energy -important to brain development, blood clotting, and controlling inflammation -help maintain healthy skin/hair -absorb/transport vitamins A,D,E,K through bloodstreamcholesterolwaxy, fatlike substance in blood -creates cell walls, hormones, and vitamin Dexcess cholesterolbuild up inside arteriesrecommended percent of calories from fats25-35vitaminscompounds in food that help regulate many body processeswater solubledissolve in water, move easily into bloodstreamfat soluble vitaminsADEKmineralselements found in food that are used by the body, not produced by bodyosteoporosisa condition in which the bones become fragile and break easilycalciumpromotes bone healthwater functions-moving food through digestive -digesting carbs and protein, aiding other chemical reactions -transporting nutrients -removing waste -storing and releasing heat -cooling body through perspiration -cushioning eyes, brain, and spinal cord -lubricating jointsmineralscalcium, phosphorus, magnesium, ironcups of water- girl9cups of water-boy13Dietary Guidelines for Americansset of recommendations about smart eating and physical activity3 key guidelines-make smart choices from every food group -find balance between food and activity -get most nutrition of of caloriesMyPyramidinteractive guide line to healthful eating and active living5 (6th) groups of my pyramidgrains veggies fruits milk proteins (oils)recommendations for healthy food picking-focus on fruit -vary your veggies -get your calcium-rich foods -make half your grains whole -get lean with protein -limit certain foodsnutrient densehigh ratio of nutrients-caloriesfood additivessubstances added to food to produce a desired effectfreecontains none- insignificant amount of a fiven componentlowcan eat regularly without exceeding daily limitslight1/3 fewer calories, 1/2 fat, or 1/2 sodiumreduced25% fewer calories or 25% fewer nutrientshigh20 percent of daily valuegood source of10-19% of daily valuehealthylow in fat, limited amounts of cholesterol and sodium7 nutritional claimsfree low light reduced high good source of healthyfoodborne illnessfood poisoningsymptoms of foodborne illness-fever higher than 101.5 -vomiting/diarrhea -blood in stool -dehydrationpasteurizationtreating a substance with heat to kill or slow the growth of pathogens4 steps to keeping food cleanclean separate cook chillcross-contaminationspreading of pathogens from one food to anotherfood allergycondition which the body's immune system reacts to substance in some foodsfood intolerancenegative reaction to food that doesn't involve immune system