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12 terms

Ch. 4 Climate and Climate Change

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climate
the characteristic weather conditions in a place over a long period of time
latitude
the distance in degrees north or south of the equator
marine climate
occurs near the ocean, usually along the west coasts of continents. Temperatures do not drop very far at night. Summers and winters are mild. Marine climates recieve steady precipitation because winds blowing off the ocean bring moisture to the atmosphere.
continental climate
occurs in the interior of continents. Weather patterns vary in the different types of continental climates. Most have large differences between daytime and nighttime temperatures because they lack the influence of nearby oceans. Winter months are usually much colder than summer months.
ocean current
a stream of water that flows through an oceans in regular patterns
season
a period of the year.
climate zone
one of the major divisions in a system for classifying climates
microclimate
the climate of a smaller area within a subclimate
urban heat island
the warmer body of air over a city
rain shadow
the dry area on the downwind side of a mountain
ice age
a period of time in which huge sheets of ice spread out beyond the polar regions
El Niño
when weak trade winds allow warm water to flow back toward the central and eastern Pacific. The clouds and heavy rain also shift eastward, toward South America.